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Full text of "An introduction to the birds of Great Britain"

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INTRODUCTION 



TO IHB 



BIRDS OP GREAT BRITAIN. 



BY 



JOHN GOULD, F.R.S., &c., &c. 







LONDON: 
PRINTED FOB THE AUTHOR, 

BT TAYLOR AND FBANCI8, BBD LION COUBT, FLBBT BTBRET. 

1873. 

\Price Five ShiUmgs and Staypeificer^ 



TO 

THE RIGHT HONOURABLE 

EOWLAND, VISCOUNT HILL, 

OP HAWKSTONE, 

LORD LIEUTENANT AND CUSTOB BOTULOBUM, COUNTY OP SALOP, 

THIS WORK 

ON 

THE BIRDS OF GEEAT BEITAE^ 

BY THE AUTHOR, 

TESTIMONY OP HIS SINCERE RESPECT AND REGARD 

AND IN 

COMMEMORATION OF 
AN UNINTERRUPTED PRIENDSHIP OF MORE THAN 

FORTY YEARS. 



TO THE READER. 



In pursuance of the course adopted when preparing the in- 
troductory matter of my works on the ^ Birds of Australia/ 
the ' Mammals ' of the same country, and the ^ Monograph 
of the Trochilidae/ I have had the ^ Introduction to the Birds 
of Great Britain ' set up in small type for the convenience of 
correction before printing it for the folio work ; by this means 
i have been enabled to review the entire subject, to draw up a 
complete list of the species I have thought it advisable to 
include in the British avifauna, and to make those corrections 
and additions which have become necessary while the work 
was in progress. 

It should be borne in mind that this ^ Introduction ' is not 
intended in any way in substitution for the letterpress already 
published in the folio work, but rather in augmentation of 
what is there stated and as a general summary. Those who 
do not already possess the folio edition will not be able to 
dispense with it on the acquisition of the present volume, 
while, it is hoped, it will be found a useful supplement and 
index. 




The queation may naturally suggest itself to Bome of my readers, 
what objoct I bad in view in publisbing a work on the Birds 
of Great Britain, wbon I bad already completed a eimilar publica- 
tion on the avifauna of Europe. My reafiona are simply these ; — 
Before the latter was completed the entire edition was all or 
nearly all sold ; and very many persona interested in this depart- 
ment of science were disappointed in not being able to procure a, 
copy of a work which they saw in the hands of so many others. 
Consequently, on the completion of my ' Birds of Australia,' at the 
Holicitation of a large number of private friends and others, and 
influenced by the increased taste for natural history that bad sprung 
up in the interim, I " returned to my old love " by publishing the 
British Birds, excluding those of the continent, thus complying with 
tho wishes of those persons who have eepociolly paid attention to oitr 
native ornithology. I also felt that there was an opportunity of 
greatly enriching the work by giving figures of the young of many 
of the species of various genera^ — a thing hitherto almost entirely 
neglected by authors ; and I feel assured that this infantile age of 
bird-life will be of much interest for science, to my subscribers, and 
to readers generally. 

That my efforts to render thia publication a standard work have 
been successful is evidenced by its sale being double that of any 
other work I have given to the public. Many of the numerous orni- 
thologists who have arisen within the last few years have rendered 
me much valuable information — a kindness which I duly acknow- 
ledge, and trust that, although not specially mentioned in this short 
Preface, they will take it for granted they have not been forgotten, 
and that their names have been generally associated with the various 
subjects to which their communications have reference. 

Many of the public are quite unaware how the colouring of 



these large Plates la accomplished; and uot a. fow believe that thej 
are produced by some meohanical process or by cbromo-litliographj. 
This, however, is not the case; every aky with its varied tints an( 
every feather of ench bird were coloured by hand ; and when it iM 
considered that nearly two hundred and eighty thousand illuetratioiia. 
in the present work have been so treated, it will most likely cause 
some astonishment to those wlio give the subject a thought. 

I am truly and sincerely thankful for the blessing of health. 
which has attended me during the course of my twelve years' 
labour on the present work ; and it was only while the Introductory 
matter was going through the press that a severe blight fell i 
me (the untimely death of my youngest son, Dr. Franklin Gould*), 
and cast a gloom over my future happiness. I should not have 
alluded to tliiw painful subject here did 1 not feel it was only doing 
justice to his memory, inasmuch as ho rendered mo much assist 
in the composition of the following Introduction, which, from hia 
varied acqiiiremonta, he was well qualified t-o give. His loss haa 
caUed forth the sjTnpathy of many kind friends, which has in some 
measure assuaged the sad affliction which has befallen me. If I 
am spared it is my inteutiou not to be idle ; for although I do not 
entertain the idea of entering upon any new enterprise, I shall still 
pursue the subject with the same energy I have hitherto done,- 
at one period of the year attending to the Birds of Asia, at another 
to the recent discoveries in the ornithology of Australia, pursuing 
the subject to New Guinea and the adjacent islands, the avifaunas 
of these latter countries being inseparable. 

It gives mo great pleasure to state that my Secretary, Mr. Prince, 
after twelve months' of very severe illness, is again able to render 
me his assistance, that Mr. Wolf aiforde me the benefit of his talented 
pencil, and that Mr, Kiohter atid Mr. Hai-t continue their services as 
heretofore. 



JOHN GOULD. 



November I, 1873, 



■ Dr. F. Gould died oF fever on txnrd ttio Steamahip ' Beliiu- ' on tho 10th 
of March last, during his passage Irom India to Suez, und was buried the 
liny in the Bed S«a. 



INTRODUCTION. 



Is the olden time when the wolf and the wild boar roamed over 
the primitive forests of Ureat Britain, when the beaver held its own 
in our ailent and undisturbed streams and lakes, when the rod deer 
followed our mountain tracks in all the vigour of ita prialine con- 
dition, when OUT marshes and great aedge-covered watery wastes 
were yearly visited by the Crane and the Spoonbill, the earliest dawn 
of natural history which was to herald the light of future ages had 
not yet broken upon the untutored Celt, who alone shared with those 
BJiimttls the poaaession of our islands. With the progress of civih^a- 
tion that obacurity has been gradaally dispelled ; and, happily for our 
country, fi'om the time when Gilbert White wro1« his charming ac- 
count of Belborne, the study of natural history, more particularly 
with reference to our native birds, has gradually increased, until 
ita pleasurea have become widely known to both young and old. The 
talented Bewick rendered the subject slill further attractive by his 
inimitable and truthful drawings ; tiien followed in the same path 
Selby, Macgillivray, Thompson, and Yarrell, whose writings have 
made this branch of science so popular that it now engrossea the 
minds of thousands. Of the truth of this statement ample evidence 
is afforded by the numerous works (both great and small) which 
have been recently published, by the many local faunas which have 
lately appeared, and by the establishment of naturalists' clubs and 
associations in many ports of the country. Such has been the im- 
pctQB given by these means to the study of natural history that 
it will scarcely be presumptuous in me to foretell that a period is 
not far distant when our native birds will be far more familiarly 
known to the people than they now arc. For, although it may appear 
surprising to many of my readers, I assert that at the present 
time there are but few persons who could enumerate by name even 
a fourth part of the birds with which we are surrounded. Country 
people are familiar enough with the call of the Wryneck, the Toico 
of the Cnckoo; and the crake of the Landrail ; but few, very few, 
would recognize those birds if placed before them. Will it not, 
then, be well to encourage the formation of natural-history societies 
to the utmost, and doing so enlighten the minds of those who have 
hitherto been much in ignorance V With this spread of knowledge, 
mythical traditions such as that of the hibernation in caves or under 
waterofsuchabirdasour common Swallow (traditions not confined, 
as might be presumed, to a remote country village, but which from 
time to time have found utterance in the lips of educated people) 
will happily cease to exist ; while the timid rustic, gradually freeing 
himself from the countless superstitions connected with many of 
our birds, will no longer pause with bated breath when startled at 
night by the not very cheerful cry of the Screech-Owl. To be in 
^^ the country and not t-o care to recognise or be able to discriminate 
^H between the musical notes of the Thnisb, the plaintive song 
^H of the Blackbird, the carol of the Lark, or the exquisite lay of the 



I 



le surprising ; yet that mch people exist is 
Shakespeare and oar earlier poets duly ap- 
preciated, howeycr, the varying melodies of our feathered songsters, 
and have never been slow to accord to each its well-earned bibute 



" I( irag the nlglitrngole, and not the larfc. 
That pierced the faarTiil hollow of thins ear ; 
Niglitlj ahe singB on jon poniEgriinato-trea ; 
BeBavo axe, love, it was tha nightingale." — 

Somea and JiiHtt, act ii: 



Again :- 



0r:- 



" Thd husy larke, messftger of dajo, 
Salucth in hire Bong tbs moFwe graj : 
-And fyry Phebofl ryeeti up ao bright, 
Thai al the orient utughetb of the light."— 

CiuucEii, Knightes Tale. 



•• Hark how tho cheerefull binls do phaunt tlioyr laiee, 

And carrot! nf loTea praise, 
Tho roerry larke hir maltins Binga aloft, 

The thrush replycs, the msTia descuot phiyes. 
The ouzell abrilla, the ruddock warblea soft ; 
So goodly all ngri» with eweet coasent 
To this dayes merrimenL"— 

Spehoer, Epitkalamian, 109S. 

The study of natural hbtory reveals to us a wide field, pregnant 
with interest and pleasure. The geologist, who, from the various 
aspecte of nature, attempts to form a conception of how this planet 
has heen formed, and the naturalist, whose senses are keenly alive to 
the beauty and importance of the manifold living objecte which meet 
his gaze on every side, are pursuing a course calculated to lead to the 
highest and happiest results. Even the humble cottager who de- 
corates his windows With flowers, and the artisan who keeps and 
encourages hie littlo birds to sing and to solace him, are imbued with 
tastes of a superior order, which, if properly cultivated, cannot 
feil to induce a greater intellectual development, and consequently 
an increase in happiness. 

Granted that the antiquary in poring over some dusty relic of a 
by-gono age experiences a thrill of pleasure denied to others, or 
that the wealthy man Ailing his rooms with the finest efforts of the 
artist's pencil, and his cahineto with articles of rare and costly work- 
manship, thereby esperiences a very high degree of gratification, or 
even that the man of pleasure, fulfilling the daily routine demanded by 
fashion, finds in it some irresistible attraction— yet what are these en- 
joyments compared with those daily and hourly offered to the student 
of nature I Does he not see in the growth of a blade of grass, or in 
the mechanism which enables the tiny gnat to effect the countless 
vibrations of its gauzy wings, or in tho majestic ease of the soaring 
eagloj evideaoea of a power and skill immeasurably superior to those 



ever originated by man ? Can he walk in the fields without eeeing nnd 
hearing aroiuid hitn sights and sounds which, while tending to make 
him more and more thoughtful, deeply impreBa him with a senac of 
the wisdom, the power, and the henefieence of hia Creator ? That 
man who has passed his allotted time in ignorance of the teeming 
worlds of life around him,ha8 had denied to him pleasures and delighto 
the experience of which must have gone far to elevate the nohiesb 
of Ood's created beings, " The study of ornithology has always been 
a farourite one with me," aays the late M>. Wheelwright, " and is 
one of the few innocent pleasures of youth which follows a man 
into maturer years, and upon which he can look back in the decline of 
life with feoliaga of pure and unalloyed delight. Man's constant 
companions in every outdoor occupation, cheering him with their 
presence and their songs, and often aiFording him a principal means of 
subsistence, it is little wonder that the study of the hahita and in- 
stincts of birds should be a favourite one with moat persons ; and to 
him whose time b quietly and happily spent in the Ibrosts and 
the fields it adds one of the truest zests to rural life." 

Notwithstanding the hmitation of area implied in a work entitled 
' The Birds of Great Britain,' the most elementary student of 
natural history must acknowledge that in numbers and in interest, if 
not in beauty of marking, our avifauna will bear a favourable com- 
parison with that of other countries of similar extent. The one moat 
cJoseJy approsimatJug to it would appear to be that of Japan — a fact 
sufficiently surprising when we remember the vast continent em- 
bracing many degrees of longitude stretching between the two. But 
the resemblance may possibly be explained by the similarity existing in 
their physical conditions and in the general character of their natural 
productions. Both countries are blessed with a temperate climate 
especially suited to similar forms of bird-life, some species Identically 
the same occurring in each ; but, in addition. Great Britain offers in 
its numerous islets, it« rocky pronjontoriea and extensive marshes, its 
natural forests and heathy expanses, certain advantages of locality 
not perhapa enjoyed by Japan to the same extent, and which are 
singularly well adapted to forma of the most oppoaite kinda. 

One feature of especial interest most always atrike the naturalist in 
studying the birds of the temperate zone, viz. the alternation of its 
feathered immigrants, which lends such a charm to the scenery, a 
charm which is greatly enhanced when we reflect that these migratory 
movements are governed by certain infallible laws. Thus the arrival 
and departnre of the Swallow, the Cuckoo, the Landrail, &c. is as 
strictly regulated as the recurrence O'f the seasons : 

" Yes. the Slurlc in the hpuvena knoireQi hsr appointed times ; and the Turtle 
uid the Cr&ne and the Swalloir obserre the time of llieir coming." 

Besides being tenanted by about one hundred and fifty stationary 
species. Great Britain has migrants and occasional visitants from the 
four points of the compass ; thus, in spring, nearly fifty species visit 
US from the south^whilst in the autumn our milder and more equable 
climate attracts a still larger number from the north, who instinctively 
know they will here find that food and shelter which the rigorous 
b2 



winters of more uorthem r^ons deny to them. In addition to this 
trae and characteristic migration, our islands are occasionally resorted 
to by certain species which, from eome unknown cause, make a move- 
ment from east to west ; whilst the pseudo -migration from west to 
east is eseraplified in the rarely ooourring Amcricnn forme which 
from time to time have been reoorded, and which, blown off from 
their native shore. Sad in the maasea of seaweed, uprooted trees, and 
portions of wreek eonstantly approaching our coasts through the 
agency of the Gulf Stream, that means of rest and recruitment which 
finally enables a few of them to reach a welcome though far distant 
haven. A remarkable degree of oapriciousness, which t« me hoa always 
appeared mysterious, occurs in the choice of locnlities affected hy 
certain of our migrants : thus the Pied Flycatcher will not rest 
until it has reached the middle and northern counties of England, 
while the Nightingale lUmost restricts its yisit to the southern, eastern, 
and central ones, never favouring Cornwall with its presence, and 
but rarely going into Devonshire or Wales, or further north than 
Torkahire or Durham. Again, some species, exemplified in many 
of the Plovers and Sandpipers, make our islands hut a halting-place, 
pausing for rest only on their way to unknown and probably far 
distant regions. 

The mysterious law or laws which govern migration must always 
be regarded by the naturalist with the utmost interest. Within our 
own islands hardly a month passes by without the movement of 
some species ocenrring to remind us of the existence of such 
a principle. In the early spring, before the Wheatear, that earliest of 
our visitors from the sunny south, has arrived, the Fieldfare and Eed- 
■wing which during the winter have peopled our hedgerows and 
fields, the Oeese, Ducks, and numerous wading-birds which have been 
frequenting our broads and rivers, have, in obedience to nature's 
prompting, commenced a movement northward, en route for locaUties 
better suited, by their quietude and by the nature of the food found 
there, for the propagation and rearing of their progeny ; then, as 
the rays of the life-inspiring sun strike upon oar earth with daily 
increasing strength, we begin to welcome in quick succession those 
little feathered arrivals which make the spring and early summer 
seftsons of so mnch enjoyment and anticipation to all true lovers of 
nature, March, besides the Wheatear, brings us the Chiflfchaff and 
the Sand-Martin ; April's earliest days herald in the Swallow, Wry- 
neck and Martin ; by the middle of that month the Nightingale has 
made its appearance, together with a host of other sylvan species ; 
Boon after, the Cuckoo and Landrail arrive ; and on the joyous First of 
May the latest of all comers, the Swift, the Nightjar, and Flycatcher 
may be looked for. A pause of a few weeks follows ; and, repro- 
duction having been accomplished, then cnromenoes, as it were, the 
ehb of the great tide of migration. The Swift, which, as we have 
seen, was one of the latest to arrive, is the first to depart ; then the 
Landrail makes good its retreat to the more sonthem country of 
Africa ; other kinds follow in Buccession. all hastening to make theit 
escape before such changes of climate and natural conditions have 



set in as would prore fatal to their exiBtenoe, either on acconnt of the 
lowering of the temperature or the cessation of sultahle food. By the 
end of Beptemher the great mass have departed, and only a scanty 
remnant are to be met with. With this same ehb, the autumnal 
months bring to our sight again Htriuga of grallatorial and nata- 
torial birds, urged by similar causes ftom the northern legions 
back towards the south in search of that food and aquatic Kfe which 
the icy haad of winter had already beguu to grudge them and their 
progeny in their suraraer location. To follovr the aim ajijiears 
to be the course of true migration ; but the promptings of instinct 
which lead tJie Swallow and many other species to quit our shores, 
after a brief sojourn, for Africa, or those which lead the Fieldfare 
and the Kfidwmg to quit the Norwegian 'fjelds' for our cultivated 
lands, roust surely be connected in some way with, if they have not 
for their sole object, the provision of food and climate suitable to the 
species. The Rev. H. B. Tristraro remarks that " those species which 
have the most extended northerly have also the most southerly range, 
and that those which resort to the highest latitudes for nidifioation 
also pass further than others to the southward in wiuter. Thus the 
migratory Fieldfare and Redwing, visiting regions north ofthe limits 
of the Thrush and Blackbird, on thair southern migratious likewise 
leave their more sedentary relatives behind. The Brambhng, which 
passes the Chafflnch in Norway, leaves it also in Europe, and crosses 
the Mediterranean every winter to the Barbary states," (Ibis, 18t>5, 

The regularity, however, whichoceursin the arrivals of our summer 
visitants is not quite so strictly adhered to in their departures. 
Having accomplished the purpose for which they tame, these depart 
again at varying periods, but mostly as soon aa the renewal of their 
primaries will admit of their flying across the channel, leaving their 
young to follow instinctively (when their muscular development baa 
been sufficiently matured) the same route by which their parents have 
preceded them. Thin apparent desertion of the young birds at a 
period when one would imagine the presence of their parents as 
leaders would bo absolutely essential, seems to prevail amongst many 
of our migratory species. That the old birds should be able instinc- 
tively to wing their way back to whence they came is not half so 
marvellous as that the newly fledged nestling, urged by some mys- 
terious power, should undertake a flight extending over hundreds of 
miles and many variations of climate in search of a temporary home 
it has never seen. This irresistible impulse, which prompts the ne- 
cessity of a migration somewhither, ie but too sadly seen in the rest- 
less actions and almost frantic efforts of the caged Turtle Dove, 
Nightingale, or Whitothroat during the period at which, were they 
free, they would be leaving onr shore ; once let that period be passed, 
their efforts cease, and apparent resignation to their prison ensues. 
" It sometimes happens," says Mr. B. Gray, " that Swil'ts, obeying 
their unconquerable instincts, will at the dose of a stormy season 
desert their unfledged young, and leave them to perish of hunger. 
Late breeds especially are subject to this unnatural desertion. 



Oftcner than onco I have eccn the little round Booty faces of the 
young ones peering out of their holes and plaintively crjing for food, 
after which they have crept back to die. In these very neats, on the 
return of another aeason, the eame old birds have been luiown to 
rearrange their building-materi-als, a few straws being merely bud 
over the bones of the abandoned to receive a new famUy." 

It is a matter of aurprise to aome porsoas, aa indeed it may be to 
the most astute philosopher, how such frail little birds as the Cbiff- 
chaff and its alhes can cross the sea from France or Portugal with- 
out exhibiting any very apparent signs of fatigue ; yet we know 
that they do so, and moreover that a still smaller species, the Oold- 
crest (Seguhis cnatatux), effects a much longer passage when crossing 
the German Ocean in its migration from the opposite parte of the Conti- 
nent. I mnst not omit to mention, however, that occasionally hundreds 
of these diminutive birds are found in an exhausted state in die early 
morning on the Northumberland and Norfolk coasts ; and in sup- 
port of this 1 may quote here a, very interesting passage from the 
work of the late gifted Mr, Selby, which runs thus : — " On the 24tli 
and 25th of October 1822, after a very severe gale, with thick fog, 
from the north-east (but veering towards its conclusion to the east and 
south-east), thousands of the Goldcrests were seen to arrive upon the 
sea-shore and sandbanks of the Northumbrian coast, many of them 
so fatigued by their flight or perhaps by the unfavourable shift of 
the wind, as to be unable to rise again from the ground ; and great 
numbers were in consequence caught or destroyed. The flight must 
bavo. been immense in number, as its extent was traced through the 
whole length of the coasts of Northumberland and Darham, There 
appears little doubt of this having been a migration from the more 
northern provinces of Europe (probably furnished by the pine-forests 
of Norway, Sweden, &c.), from the circumstance of its arrival being 
simultaneous with that of large flights of the Woodcoek, Fieldfare, 
and lledwing." 

Woodcocks, we know, generally arrive in fair condition on our 
north-eastern shores at dawn, with a wind that is eitber easterly or 
within a point or two of that direction ; but should the wind shift 
after their flight has commenced, the increased muscular effort 
required lands them on our coast in an exhausted and emaciated state. 
Assuming, however, that birds, both great and Bmall, have availed 
themselves of a favourable slant of wind, no great amount of mus- 
cular efiort would be requisite, inasmuch as those arriving frxim 
the south will require little more than an hour to cross the Channel, 
while the passage of the German Ocean by those coming from the north 
may occupy a short night*. It iainteresting to note that some of our 
migrants effect the passage to our shores daring the night, and others 
by day; as a rule, it is the small sylvan birds which come at the 
former time, as is evidenced by numbers being found at the base of 
the various lighted beacons of our southern and south-eastem coasts, 
against which, attracted by the light, they have flown and killed 

• Aa Bti eviiienM that birds ore cnpable of taking very long fliglits with 
sppBrciit ciue, I may quote a letter to 'Tbe Timos'of June 27, 187^, which 



themBelves ; the SwallowB, the Cuckoo and the Turtle Dovo, on the 
other hand, wing their way across in broad day-light. 

Btaides the regular migration of certain apeeies, a romarkaWe 
ahit'ting of locality occure with others, not only in our own, but in 
maiiy other parts of the world, the cause of which is totally unknown. 
Starlings are now very abundant in Cornwall, and MisBel-Thrushes 
in Scotland — in which they were formerly not to bo seen, 
Suoh interchanges of locality are doubtlesa occasionally due to alter- 
ations in the face of the country : but this was not the cause in the 
case of Cornwall ; for no county can have undergone less alteration ; 
aa it was in the days of Julius Caasar so it is now, unless we except 
the operations of mining, which naturally only affect the surface 
of a district to a small extent. The sudden appearance of Fallaa'a 
Sandgrouae {Si/rr/utpteg paradoxui) in our islands and on various 
parts of the Continent, in 1S59-60, must he in the recollection, of 
every one. This irruption of a strange bird from the distant country 
of Siberia, perhaps from China, was very astonishing ; and it well 
illustrates my meaning, which may be further cxeraplified by the 
mention of two similar occurrences in Australia, In the year 1839 
the whole of the southern and eastern portions of that country was 
suddenly visited by millions of the little Grass Parrakeet {Melopsit~ 
tacug undulatvs) ; and a year or two later swarms of a species of 
Wat«r-hen {Trihonijx ventralii) apread themselves like a cloud over 
the Swan-River district, destroying fields of com and gardon-produce 
and committing ravages unheard of before ; and both these species 
have kept their hold untU the present day, hut o£ course in much 
smaller numbers. Although not necessarily beaiing upon the pre- 
ceding remarks, it may be here mentioned that young birds appear 
to wander further from their native homes during the first autumn 
or year of their existence than they do afterwards, going out, as it 
were, to see the world before setthng down for the proper business of 



I 



"Sib,— The promoters of tbe ujstem of elutric telegraphy inaist un its im- 
menae Huperioritj over ths older plan of pigeon-deepotcheB. Huw far theao 

S-etensioiia are founded on facta ia shown b; tbe rraults of the pieeon-riice to 
ruuela, nhidi atorted from Ibe Cl fetal Palace on Thursday last, wbea 72 birda 
were Qonn al noon. Immediately on Ibeir departure I lelegniphed to tbe aeore- 
taij of the Bociety vhoae members had rorw]irde(l tbe birds, announciDg thotr 
departure. The first birds arrired in BruBsels al 6.28 r.B.i and the telegram at 
6.30 F.M. 

"Another example, and I hare done. During tbe Crimean War tbe intelligence 
was conveyed to Colomba. Cejlon, TO milva north of Point de Qallo, where the 
shipe to India landed tbeir despatobea, and the solute Srod on tbe news of thd 
fall of Sobaatopol resulted from information brought by them. Tbe oleotrio 
telegraph was establiahed, and the pigeon-post abolished. I have recently been 
requested to restock Colombo wilh Belgian " vojagoiirs," aa the information 
brought by the electric wire is noither eo apeedj nor so correct as that convened 
bj the birda. The Prusnans, wise in their generation, hare taken lessona from 
the Parinians, and established pigeon-posts in Meli and their other fortified 
towns. In the erent of a war in wliieb wo ma; be engaged, what would be ■' 
value of birds tliat would convey mesasgra to Jersey, Guemsey, &c., when 
telegrams wires had been out tf tbe enemy? W. B. TEQEIMEIB 



their lives ; hence, doubtless, it is, that the young of so many of the 
rarer northern speciea (Eagles, Gulls, Divers, &c.) are found fur- 
ther to the south than the old biids. 

With respect to the autunujal departure of many kinds of our 
smaller migranta, it would appear thnt most, if not all of them, 
assemble aloog our south coast ready for departure on tlie occurrence 
of a fiivonrable wind. EaTing once crossed the channel to France or 
Portugal, their further southern journey becomes an easy one, and is 
doubticBs performed by short stages until they roach the shores of the 
Mediterranean, which in the case of our own birds is probably eroased 
at the narrowest portion, viv.. Gibraltar, or some other promontory of 
Southern Spain, their destination being the coast of Morocco ; on the 
other hand, those of Central Europe migrate by the way of Sicily 
and Malta to Algeria, while those which have passed the aummer 
Btill further east proceed in a direct hue to Egypt. North and 
south, and vice versa, is in my opinion tJieir instinctive niovemont ; 
and this natural impulse is so blindly followed that the ftuail, when 
migirating, will, if possible, fly through a house or over a mountain 
rather than turn aside from its course, which would not be the case 
were reason its gnide j in this respect it resembles the Norwegian 
Lemming, whose onward course is stopped neither by lakes nor hills, 
and some species of ants, whose movements are equally undeviating. 

The British Islands and Europe generally, to which the fore- 
going remarks on migration almost solely refer, are, however, only 
a small portion of the globe subject to such interchanges of bird- 
life at different seoBons of the year j the avifauna of the great 
continent of Asia, a continent having the loftiest mountains, the 
most elevated plateaux, and the richest forests in the world, is subject 
to similar laws. Bo, again, if we cross the equator and take a view 
of what ocetirs in the southern hemisphere, we shall find that a 
precisely similar movement takes place there, but of course at 
opposite seasons, the antipodean summer being coincident with our 
winter. In manyinstances bird-life is there represented by speciea of 
a similar form to those we find in our own country, and which evince 
a tendency to a movement north and south at cCTtain periods of the 
year as with us. 

Although in the foregoing remarks I have used the terms migrant 
and migratory in their ordinary acceptation, it wQl be as well before 
quitting the subject of migratioa to place before my readers what I 
consider should be the strict meaning of the word migrant. The 
country a bird resorts tu for the propagation of its species should be 
regarded as its true habitat: thus the Swallows and others, although 
they pass only half the year in the British Islands, are reeUy not 
migrants in the same sense of the term as that in which we should 
BO regard the Fieldfare and Eedwing, who, although resident with na 
during the winter, retire to Norway and other northern regions for 
the purpose of breeding, and who are impelled to visit our country 
solely to obtain the food necessary for their existence. But whilst 
regarding the species visiting as irom the north during the winter 
mouths, such as the Woodcock, Ducks, Fieldfares, Eedwuigs, &c., aa 



true migraTitB only, it must be recollected that the Swallow, Chiff- 
ehufT, Cuokoo, &c., species leaving ub at the same portion of the year, 
are migrants ho far aa the countries they respectively winter in are 
concerned. 

Could acenaiis be taken of the smaller birds inhabiting Great Britain, 
Buch as Sparrows, Chaffinches, Bantings &o., and of the same birds 
frequenting a aimilar area on the Continent, there can be little doubt 
that the former would greatly outnumber the latter— a circum- 
Btanee which may be partly due to our islands affording many more 
favourable localities, and partly to the fact that our smaller birds are 
not, as anile,killedorcapturedforthepurposeaof the table, a practice 
which prevails abroad : of these latter, the Wbeatearand the Lark are 
almost the only kind that are thus iitilined ; but to form an estimate 
of the numbers of the latter obtained by means of the trammel-nets 
of the birdcatoher, or of the former captured on the downs of 
Susses and Kent, is quite impossible. The numbers of many species 
are, indeed, so great that ao just estimate of the whole can be 
formed. Thus it has been computed that the Gannets frequenting 
the Bass rock cannot be less than twenty thousand ; how vast, then, 
must be the number of that speniea alone aroaud our coasts, when wo 
take into oonsideration that they are proportion ally as numerous on 
Ailea Craig and the other roL'ks on which they are known to breed ; 
the myriads also of the Dunlin and other strand-loving birds fre- 
quenting our bays and iiilets are beyond all oomputation. 

Unfortunately, however, of late years vast numbers of certain 
species have been destroyed, either wantonly, or for senseless 
purposes of decoration instigated by fashion ; and to such an extent 
has this been carried that it has become necessary to enact laws for 
their protection. Whether such enactments will tend to prevent the 
wholesale and cruel destruction of Robins, Kingfishers, Chafflnches, 
&c. is yet to be seen ; at all events if a law can be &umed to 
put a stop to these proceedings, it will be most desii-able. The 
magistrate, however, should have the power of acting according to 
his judgment when such malpractices are brought under his nrltioe; 
for to say that the St. Kildan (for whom, however, special excep- 
tion has been made) ahould not take the Fulmar or its eggs, which 
constitute almost his sole subsisteiice, or that the proprietor of the 
Faru Islands should not collect the down of the F,ider, though it may 
interfere with the health of the birds, or that those delicate moreeaus. 
Plovers' eggs, should not be taken, would be absurd. Bird-catching 
should be restricted to certain seasons; the idler who spreads his nets 
for the capture of the Swallows that skim over the mead, or who 
hangs hia invisible snare across the brook for the beautiful King- 
fisher to fly intfl, the man who professedly catches every Chaffinch 
in a lane, and the clover scamp who prowls round the edge of every 
shrubbery at daybreak for the newly arrived Nightingale, should be 
mode to know that such practices are inadmissible, and that they have 
no moral right to such a course of procedure, compared with which 
the conduct of the old Whitechapel bird-catcher is an honest calling. 

The following extract &om ' Land and Water' of Ai^uBt29, 1S68, 





10 

embodying a letter to 'The Times,' apfly bears out my previoos 

remarka on the vholeaale destniction recently dealt out to certain 
species. 

"No words can conToy any adequato idea of the wanton, wicked 
cruelty perpetrated by these ruthless slayers of unoffending birds. 
Broken-winged birds are abandoned, and drift away to perish by alow 
degrees ; badly wounded birds are allowed to flutter and struggle in 
the bottom of the boat, their sufferings unheeded and uacared for ; 
while many fearfully hurt manage to reach the shore to die in 
lingering agony: and, lamentable to say, all this butchery is committed 
fornogoodpurpoae. We find a letter in' The Times' headed' A Flea 
for the Kittiwake,' in which it is remarked that ' some months ago a 
contributor to a popular journal of natural history, writing &om 
LiniMlnshire, disclosed the fact that London and proTinciol dealers 
now give one shilling per head for every ' White Gull ' forwarded — 
that one man (a stranger drawn thither for profitable occupation) 
boasted of having last year killed with his own gun at Flamfaorough 
Head 4OO0 of theee gulls — and that another sea-fowl shooter had 
a order from a London house for 10,000, all for the ' plume trade.* 
During the present summer,' it is added, ' one of these plamasiiers 
has visited various lireeding-stations of the Eittiwake in Scotland, 
and laid his plans for having suppUee of birds sent to him. At Allaa 
Crag alone, he gave an order for 1000 Gulls per week, and there 
stated that he was prepared to take any quantity. To meet this 
demand the tacksman of the rock spread his nets while the birds 
were sitting on their newly hatched young, which were left in 
hundreds to periah on the ledges.' By reference to the letter from 
which the above is estracted, and which appeared in ' The Times ' for 
August 21st, it will be seen that an Act has this year received the 
Royal Assent for the preservation of sea-fowl in the Isle of Han, 
and that its preamble states that * the said birds arc considered of 
great importance to the fiBbcFiuen in guiding them to shoals of fish, 
and also for sanitary purposes by removing offal of fish from the 
harbours and shores.' " 

Again, in a communication to the ' Zoologist ^ for January 1869, 
Mr. John Cordoaux says ; — " The following paiugraph is copied from 
the ' Guardian ' of November 18, 1868. Comment is unnecessary. 
' On a strip of coast 18 miles long, near Flamborough Head, 107,250 
Bca-birda were destroyed hj pleature jtartUs iu four months, 12,000 
by men who shoot them for their feathers to adorn women's hats, 
and 79,500 young birds difl of ttarvalion in emptied nests. Com- 
mander Knocker there stationed, who reports these facts, saw two 
boats loaded above the gunwales with dead birds ; and one party of 
eight guns kiUed 1100 in a week.' " 

Nature on the other hand herself at times effects similar wholesale 
destruction ; thus asevere winterniay prove fatal to many thousands 
of the feathered creation : in support of this assertioii I annex some 
extraeta from various soiiroes. Under the heading " Severity of the 
Weather " we read in ' Land and Water ' for January 26, 1867. 

" We receive from various parts of the country uceounts of the 



11 

effects of the recent cold upon all kinds of game. A correspondent 
of the Invemfss Courier Bays that in Strathnaim, in common with 
other parts of the country, not a sprig of heather is visible anywhere, 
and there can he no doubt that if the enow and frofit continue any 
length of time the destruction among all kinds of game will he beyond 
all precedent. Already Muirfowl are flocking in thoUBands to the 
kw-lyiag grounds, and on Saturday last we noticed the birchwood 
around Craggie literally swarming with them. A farmer in Strath- 
nairn told oa that one day lately, aa he entered his stable, the entire 
area of his courtyard was coTered oa 'thick aa they could stand' 
with grouae pickingup anything they could get among the dung-heaps; 
and similar ' gatherings ' could be told by many other fanners." 

Again, in the eamc journal, for August 3, 1867, Mr. Henry Lee, 
'writing of the " destruction of small birds by rain," says : — 

" My friend Dr. Millar, of Bethnal Honse, Bethnal Green, writes 
me aa follows :—' Good evidence of the severity of the rain during 
Thursday night (July 25th) haa been afforded here in the destruction 
of nearly all the sparrows which congregate in our trees. My under- 
gordener picked up one hundred and twenty-four on the following 
morning, and in sweeping up the fallen leaves of to-day the dead 
birds are being found in considerable nnmherfi. We estimate that 
more than two hundred were killed.' " 

Mr. E. H, llodd writing to me from Penaauoe under the date of 
January 8, 1867, saya, " I foresaw that there was hard weather 
somewhere, although the thermomerter never showed a greater amount 
of frost than one degree, which was the lowest reading here ; 60 
miles to the eastward the reading was on Wednesday nine degrees 
above zero, and on Thursday only five : so much for our climate. The 
heavy weather to the eastward haa driven millions of Linnets, Star- 
lings, Larks, Redwings, Fieldfares, Peewits, and Golden Plovers to 
this district." Aa I was at the time on a viait to Lord Falmouth at 
Tregothnan, moat of the facte mentioned by Mr. Kodd came under 
my own observation ; and I may add that the destruction of these 
birds was immense ; I myself saw lying dead on the frozen snow 
hundreds of Starlings, Son g-Th rushes, Missel-Thrushes, Itedwings 
and Fieldfares, hut none of the Common Itlackbird, and noticed that 
several of the weakly hirds were attacked and eaten by the Itooks, 
which, themselves in an exhausted state, flocked round ^e house and 
at times even approached the drawing-room windows. 

Violent and heavy gales also frequently lend their aid towards 
the destruction of bird-life, as evidenced by our shores being often 
found after their ocourrence literally strewn with Guillemots, Euzor- 
bills, and other sea-birds ; in proof of which the following instances 
recorded in the 'Zoologist' for 1872 may be cited. 

" After the severe storm of January " says Mr, H. Refers (writing 
from the Isle of Wight) " our shores from Compton Bay to Water- 
combe Bay were lined with Razorbills, Guillemots &c. I had up- 
wards of a hundred brought to me between the 25th and 31st, most 
of them in a very bad condition, which had evidently perished for 
want of food. Seven Gannets were also picked up and brought to 




me; thi§ I consider very remarkable: we do oooaBionally get a 
Bpecimen in very hard winters ; but for seven of these powerful birds 
to be driven dead upon our shores shows the severity of the storm." 

Mr. Stephen Clogg, writing from Looe two days lat«r (February 20), 
says, " The south-eastern shores of Cornwall have been covered 'with 
the dead bodies of various birds during the present month. In a 
walk of about a mile I numbered no less than sixty-nine dead botiies 
of Razorbills, in various stages of decay. This state of things ex- 
tends for upwards of ten miles ; and when we consider the great 
numbers that have been carried away for the purpose of making 
plumes for ladies' hats, and others that did not come ashore, I think 
we may safely conclude that thousands of the above-named Bpecies 
of birds have perished in this immediate neighbourhood within a 
fortnight; and if such has been the case in other porta of England 
how vaat must have been the mortality amongst them ! " 

To the above instances Mr. Newman, the indefatigable editor of 
the ' Zoologist,' adds in a note, •' This morning (February 21st) I 
met a man going over London Bridge with a clothes-basket fall or 
Razorbills : lie could not, or would not, tell me how he came bj 
them ; but by the blood on the phimage, I think they had come by a 
violent death." 

Lastly disease, the greatest of all misfortunes, plays its sad part 
among birds as well as among quadrupeds and man. Grouse, 
as we all know, arc frequently visited with great severity, and the 
sweeping hand of death is not satisfied until all but a remnant have 
Bnccumbed to ita rayages. Nature, in hor wiadom, may oaQse tdl 
these various modes of destruction to take effect for some good end, 
— to check, perhaps, an inordinate increase of a particular species : 
quite certain it is that she never intended that fi.ve thousand Grouse 
should be bred on a Lancashire moor, or that a thousand Blue 
Harea should inhabit the crown of a single Scottish hill, as ia often 
the case. 

This unnatural over-crowding of the Grouse and Hares may liave 
arisen in the oaae of the former from the extreme care and attention 
bestowed upon them, and, as regards the latter, from the killing 
down of the Golden Eagles and Foxes, of whose food the Blue Hare 
constitutes a large proportion , and upon the undue increase of which 
they were doubtless intended to afford a wholesome check. 

" The jealous care," says Mr. Robert Gray, in his 'Birds of Western 
flcotland,' " with which this beautiful bird la protected appears of 
late years to have affected the wellbeing of the species ; " and " 1 
cannot withold expressing a fear tliat the K«d Gronse of Scotland, 
if not soon left to ita own resources, may ultimately become a victim 
to overprotection. The great changes that have taken place within 
the last thirty years in the management of moorland tracts, and the 
excessive rents now derived from suchpropertiea. induced both land- 
owners and lessees to clear the ground of all kinds of animals that 
would prey upon those birds which are not atrong enough to protect 
themselves ; hence sickly broods of Grouse perpetuate other broods, 
that year by year degenerate, until disease ensues, and in some 



instances ttlmoat depopulates an eatire diatriut. There cati be no 
doubt that this uuwurrimtubla deatruution ol' Hawks aiid Buzzards 
affects adversely the condition of the birds witL which our Scottish 
mountains are stocked — the number of wounded birds alone which 
survive the unprecedented aniinal slaughtAr through which the Red 
Qrouso is now obliged to puss being an argument sufficient to show 
that such meroiful agents are wanted to prevent the spread of en- 
feebled life. In other sections of the animal kingdom epidemics 
similar to that affecting Grouse have been noticed ; and, so far as my 
own observations have enabled me to judge, I am disposed to regard 
these periodical outbreaks of disease as more or less associated with 
a derangement of Nature's laws. In almost every case where undue 
protection is given to certain animals by the rigorous destruction of 
others, man's interference is followed, sooner or later, by evils of a 
graver nature than those which the protective measures were in- 
tended to cure ; and until some more rational plan is tried for the 
restoration of the Bed Grouse to its original vigour, no one can say 
what may be the final issue of the somewhat anomalous position in 
which, as a specios, the bird is now undoubtedly placed." 

I can fully indorse the general remarks of Mi. Gray respecting 
the inconvenience arising from the undue protection afforded to cer- 
tain species by the rigorous destruction of others. Strange as it may 
appear, the keeper who supposes that he is zealously guarding the 
interests of his employer by ruthlessly destroying all vermin from 
the estate is in some instances committing an error. As an ex- 
ample in point, and one not mentioned by tlie writer above quoted, 
I may remark upon the destruction of the White Owl, which, injur- 
ing the game to a very small extent, confers much compensatory 
benefit in the destruction of the mice, rats, and weasels npoa which 
it feeds. Our pretty £esti'el, too, often suffers an ignominious fate 
without a reasonable excuse, its food generally consisting of moles, 
mice, lizards, &ogs, and the larger insects. Considerable latitude 
must, however, be acoorded to the keeper, who, with all bis care 
and anxiety, is frequently nonplnsed by the continued loss of 
his young game, and that coming from a quarter little to be sus- 
pected. Bome of the more intelligent of his class have, by constant 
watching, detected the Brown Owl habitually haunting the vicinity 
of bis pens, and seizing, as occasion offered, two or three of his chicks. 
The Moorhen ( GalUnida chloropus), too, stealthily threading its way 
through the grass, is no less to be dreaded, its prosene^ among the 
coops not resulting solely in the abstraction of the scattered grain, 
bat frequently in the death of a chick from a blow of its pointed 
bill, a considerable portion of the victim being afterwards eaten. No 
one who has lived much on the Thames, or other localities frequented 
by this bird, can have failed to be struck by the fury and boldness 
with which it will attack a rat, a duck, or even so largo a bird as a 
swan, if it approaches its nest. 

'• At (he beginning of July," says H. J. Partridge, Esq., of Hock- 
ham Hall, near Thetford, in Norfolk, "the keeper having lost several 
Pheasants about three weeks old from a copse, and having set traps 




see mj accmuit of tlie H ooclieB m &e fiiaitfc t 
la COM whst I have Lere and tberv aai resji 
■nd eantiTonnu {Hnpenailiea of the MoorfarariKKild excite mufriaa,! 
maj mention tliat they qtpear to Iw dured in coiaHoa wHh afl Um 
other members of the groop to which it bdon^ from th» Mieatd]^ 
formed Itail to the most robust Ihtrpkyr**; snd that thejnaaBof ■ 
combative disposition is eridenced bj posMSHoa vt a shaip wpar tm 
the wing, short in some of Qie speciea, and preJonged in otbcta. 

The question has arisen whether, when we eoasd^ tiM y 
sent comparatiye scarcity of the Fer^rine and other at tiheir fn 
mies, it will be reaUj' advisable to eneoon^ the hree£n^ of tba 
marine or cliff birds, many persons being te»tfid that snch a m uMu o 
would lead to a great decrease in our edible fish, npc^ which th^ 
solely sabsist. The daily qnaatity coosomed by the Gann«t and 
Cormorant, to say nothing of the Omllemots, Terns, fte., is greatly 
beyond conception, thus showing that both care and jadgement is 
necensoiy witK regard to the new lawB aboat to be enaeted. 

Had a measnre been passed fifty years ago and penalties enforved 
for ktUing tie Great Auk and the few remaining Bastards that then 
stalked OTer our great plains, we should doubtless have still had 
these two fine birds gracing onr islands : as it is, the former (AJai 
impmnis or Gare Fowl) is wholly estirpated from the waters, not 
only of our own country, but of the nniceree : the Bastard still holds 
ils own on the Continent, whence now and then in the conrse of a 
few years one strays over the seas, and visits the hannts of those 
of its kind which formerly existed here ; its permanent residence 
again among us, however, ia rendered impossible by the gradoal 
disappearance nnder cultivation of the vast plains and wolds over 
which it roamed, whereby they have been rendered Incompatible with 
its existence. The CapercaUlie, which probably died out from naEural 
causes, was wholly absent for a hundred years, but owing to the re- 
planting of pine-forestB, the conditions favourable to its welfare are 
retaming, and a fresh introduction has reinstated it. Other birds, 
such as the Crane, Hpoonbill, Bittern, Avocet, and the Ruff, which 
were once very common, have now, owing to the draining of our 
fens and marnhes, no resting-places where they could dwell in peace 
and Knmolested. Thus it will be seen that by man's industry in 
effecting improvements certain natural productions are greatly in- 
terfered with. 

With regard to the exact enumeration of the birds frequenting 
tho British Islands there must always be considerable difficulties. 



inasmuch aa many persooB would hesitate to include in our lists such, 
epecies att have from time to time etrajied over from America, or others 
which we may reasonahly suppose to have escaped from confine- 
ment. With these difficulties in view I have restricted the additions 
to our list of native birds, with only a few exceptions, to those 
species pertaining to the fauna of the Old World which, without con- 
stantly lesiding in our islands, have from time to time appeared 
therein, and whose visits alb repeated may ultimately entitle them 
to a permanent place in our lists. I may state with tolerable accn- 
rucy that the total number of our species is about three hundred 
and fifty. 

If the supposed number of birds inhabiting the globe he about 
10,000, it must be admitted that the British Islands have their due 
proportion of them ; of course it would be quite out of place to in- 
stitute a comparison between our coLmtry,or even the whole temperate 
region of either hemisphere, and the tropics, where bird-life is so re- 
dundant, in accordance with the profusion of fruits and insects upon 
which they mainly subsist. 

It must be conceded by every one who has paid attention to general 
ornithology, that very considerable difficulties exist in the formation 
of a perfect scientific arrangement of the Birds of the British Islandx, 
since those are but an appendage of a vast tract embracing the 
two continents of Europe and Asia, sections of the world assimilating 
in their bird-life, not only as regards genera, but in many instances 
.also with respect to species. Hence in our own hsts there will be 
oceaaionally bresks, aa it were, that would be tilled up by forms 
which, while found not far distant from us, still have never been 
actually killed in our islands. Far wider gaps will of necessity occur 
through the abBonce of such genera as are peculiar to Austraha — 
tie Bower-, Lyre-, and Itound-raising hirds, or of those which are 
confined exclusively to the New World — Toucans, Trogons, Humming, 
birds. &c, 

Man has frequently been induced to try his hand at the in- 
troduction of certain species the acquisition of which he has 
considered desirable ; such attempts have generally proved futile ; 
Nature having adapted each for a certain locality, the chmate 
and the condition of the country must be altered and rendered 
fit for the reception of either bird or quadruped before there 
is the slightest chance of their successful naturalization. Uany 
persons have been desirous of establishing the North -American 
Prairie-hen (Cnpidonia evpido) on our moors, and the Ortyx 
virgitaunui or American Partridge in our fields and coverts : but 
what good would be efiected thereby ? The Prairie-hen would 
but displace a better bird, the common Grouse ; and the little Par- 
tridge would be no improvement upon our familiar species. There 
is no fear, however, that this will ever be accomplished ; and the 
sooner such fallacies aro ended the better. It would be far wiser 
were tie efibrts of our well-meaning patrons of acclimatization di- 
rected rather t« that interchange of blood among the same speci"" 
which is essential to the mointenaoce of a healthy stock, I am, 



it is nil -important with regard to our birds, particularly those that 
are stationary. Itia well known that Bpecies whioh have lived long 
on an island without a sufficient interchange will diminish both in eizo 
and hrillianoy of tinta ; and henee, perhaps, may be explained the 
smaller si^e and more subdued colonring of many of our birdfi, com- 
pared with continental examples. The Blackcock of Norway and 
Switzerland will he found to bare the tone of its plumage more inten- 
eifled than those inhabiting Scotland, the black being nnniistokably 
of a darker hue, and the gloss of the feathers more resplendent. The 
Norwegian Ptarmigan, too, is of a purer white compared with our 
own bird, while its full summer dress is much darker. So, again, the 
Longiailed Tit {Meeigtiira Qmulata) of Norway and Denmark diifers in 
having a white head, while that of Great Britain has the crown and 
faw dark or obscurely striped ; and the Cole Tit (Parus ater) of 
Belgium in having the back grey, instead of the slight olive tint 
seen in British examples. To make such differences, however, 
grounds for specific distinction, as has in some cafiea been done, is 
in my opinion playing with science. That the drier and more rarified 
air of the Continent, coupled with the more direct influence of the 
solar rays, contributes to cause these slight differences, seems to me 
highly probable ; and I am strengthened in this view by noting that 
among snch groups as the TrochiUdie, or Humming-birds of Ame- 
rica, some of the richest and finest colours are seen in species that 
frequent lofty situations. 

Most of the Pheasants now spread over every county of the British 
ifdands are mongrels, brought about by the interbreeding of three 
kinds, and their progeny are but too often rickety and sickly creatureo. 
Those of our sportsmen who have flushed a true Fhasumtis iorquatus 
in England, or killed the same bird in China, its native country, must 
have been astonished at the quickneea of its arrow-like flight, and 
the wildnoas of its actions. 

The scientific naturalist of course repudiates oil varieties such as 
the Pheasants allnded to, no two of which are alike in colour or 
markings, and whose promiscnonB interbreeding can lead to no im- 
portant result. We see 'this intercrossing carried to a still greater 
extent in our domesticated Pigeons and Fowls ; but beyond the 
acquisition of certain variations in plumage, or of qnahtics rendering 
them more highly esteemed for the table, nothing of interest is 
attained. 

Whilst on the subject of interbreeding I should wish to draw the 
attention of sportsmen to the ad-vantages likely to accrue from the 
interbreeding of our Grouse with that of Norway (Tetr-ao saticeti). 
Ornithologists are questioning whether these are not one and the 
same species, and if the diflerenoea existing between the two may not 
be dne to the influence of climate. Should such be the case (and I 
think it probable), then the introduction of the original stock would 
doubtless effect an improvement m the health and vigour of our birds. 
Prof. Easch, of Christiania, believes the two so-called species to be 
identical, and is introducing our Grouse into his country, partly to 
determine this point, and partly for the sake of the infuBion of fresh 



17 

blood ; but more on this subject will be found ia mj- account of tbo 
Eed GrouBo. As bearing upon their unitj, I may niontiou tbat 
I made a journey to Norway for the solo purpose of studying tho 
habita of Tetrao saliceti, and obaerred that they differed in littlo or 
no respect from those of our Grouse, and that its crow was also 
Bimihir. 

Mr. Robert Gray remarks that, as a rnle,all the Grouse ffom Lewis, 
Harris, North and South Uist, Barra, &c. "may be said to bo 
Bmallor and lighter in colour than those from moors on tho main- 
land, especially the mountain-rangea of the north-east of Scotland, 
which invariably yield in good aeaaona the lai^ost and most beau- 
tifully marked birds. In many districts the native Grouse par- 
take of tho coloration of the ground in tboir markings : thus 
the finest and darkest birds are those frequenting rich heathy 
tracts ; while on broken ground of a rocky character, such as may 
bo seen in Wigtownshire, the grouse are either more or less mottled, 
or are altogether lighter in colour, and less in size and weight." 

Before closing my remarks on the Tetrao saliceti and the English 
Grouse, it may be interesting to note that the extent of tho southern 
range of the former, whether we look at it in Norway, Sweden, or 
Eusaift, is restricted to much about tho same degree of Houthem lati- 
tude as that of our own bird in England and Wales, thus adding one 
more indirect proof of their probable identity. On tho other hand 
the Blackcock and Ptarmigan have a more extended southern 
range, both being found in Switzerland, if not in Northern Italy, 

Although in a. previous page I have discountenanced tho introduc- 
tion of new species, I may be here permitted to make an exception 
by advocating the claims of tho Gelinotto or Hazel-Grouso {Bonasa 
betulina) to a trial of acclimatization in this country. Without put- 
ting forth this suggestion as original, I may stato that having seen 
much of this excellent bird in Norway and other parts of Europe, 
and noticed that it thore dwelb in woods very similar to those which 
occur in Kent and other counties of England and Scotland, I see no 
reason why it should not be successfully naturalised; and I would 
suggest that those who are of the same opinion and have the means 
of making the experiment should do so. 

" It is to me a mystery," says Mr. Lloyd, in his 'Game-birds and 
Wild Fowl of Sweden and Norway,' " why the Hazel-Hcn, which, from 
its English namo, would almost seem to have been a former inhabitant 
of the British Isles, has not been naturalized with us, inasmuch as it 
ia, of all game-birda, tho most delitaoua, of consummate beauty, and of 
nnoonquerable hardihood, 'and adapted, moreover,' according to Mi. 
George Chichester Oxendon, who has seen and shot theac birds in 
most European countries, ' to every variety of cover, from pine- 
forests to hazel- and oak-copses.' But it is not too late iu the day 
for the AccliraatiKation Society to take the Hazel-Hon in hand; and 
if the localities were suitable for the purpose (and such there are, no 
doubt, in England and Hcotland), and the attempt were made with 
from twenty to fifty brace of these birds, I aoc no reason why it 
shoold not eucceed." 



18 

That the introduetioii of the Pheofiant, the Guinea-fowl, and the 
Turkey has been to a certain extent succesBful must be admitted ; 
but it is to a certain extent only ; for it is believed by competent 
authorities that the Pheasant if left to itself would die out in 
thirty years, and the Guinea-fowl and Turkey in a much shorter 
time. Nurses, feeders, aad watchers are absolutely necessary for 
the preservation of these three birds, just as the safety and health 
of the Elands in Lord Hill's Park, at Hawkstone, are depend^it 
upon the keeper who feeds and nightly shelters them during inde- 
ment seasons. 

Had I not had ample experience on the subject of naturalization, I 
should not have prolonged these remarks ; but havingfor the last forty 
years been acloaeobserTorof the denizens ofthe Gardens of the Zoolo- 
gical Socie^ of London, a Society justly popidar for its interest and 
usefulness, I have not failed to note that howaver high our hopes ma.y 
have been raised respecting the probability of the successful introduc- 
tion of many valuable species, nothing but bitter disappointment has 
boon the result. Two or three instances will sufSoe. Soon after the 
arrival of the beautiful Mandarin Ducks they commenced laying, and 
hatched out several clutches of young ; it was therefore only natural 
to infer that this lovely denizen, of the Celestial Empire would here- 
after grace our ponds and lakes ; hut such has not been the case, and 
very sparingly indeed does the bird breed after the second or third 
year of its introduction. Three species of the equally beautiful Ceri" 
oniiAes, or so-called Horned Pheasants, Lavo at one time or other 
also graced the gardens, and gave early evidence that they would 
reproduce their kinds ; and many of them did so ; but, alas ! the 
same result followed ; for in a yeiy few years all, both old and 
young, sickened and died, A like fate attended the fine Crossopti- 
Ions : they laid freely, and a nnmerous progeny wore raised during 
the first two or three years ; but they ultimately ail perished ; and 
thus these fine and rare members of the PhusianidcB, which fonued 
unrivalled ornaments to the Gardens in 1870, were, in 1872, not to 
be seen, llany other instances might be cited in support of this vieW 
of the impossibility of naturalizing a foreign species. Nature, as a 
rule, places each species in the locality best adapted to it ; and ita 
removal to any other is pretty certain to end in failure. The at- 
tempts at introduction of these and other birds by such a aocietry 
as the Zoologioal, however, have fhia good end — that they onablc the 
public and the scientific ornithologist to view in a living state objoctB 
of which otherwise they could only inspect the dried sJrinB, and, 
when they breed, to make themselves acquainted with the colour and 
markings of their eggs, the downy state of their yoimg, and flie 
changes of plumage they undergo untO they attain that of the adult. 
Still it is to be regretted that thoir osistencc is not further prolonged. 

Each season uf the year possesses its peculiar attractions ; but 
spring has especial claims upon our notice. The sun, awakened from 
his winter lethargy, ushers in this delightful season with his genial 
warmth ; and all nature greets with joy the presage of coming 
summer, and its many pleaaing and interesting o^Bodations. Ihe, 



I 



19 

smaller birds are now prompted to exerciee tbeirvooal powers, filling 
the woods and hedge-iows with their joyous harmony; and preparo- 
tioDB for pairing forecast the hreeding-seaBon. The Grouse tribe 
resort to their " lek-stiilles*," the Ruffs to their hillocks ; the Books 
return to their anoostral dms, and the Daws to the nooks sod cran- 
nies of the castellated tower. 

It is at this particular season that birds assume their gayest 
colours, and oftOTtimes appear in accessory plumes. The Pea- 
cock now Bjireada his maguificent train to the greatest advantage, 
the Huffs display their cuiioaa neck-plumes, the Grebes their tippets, 
and tho Egret its flowing baek-feathora. In short, every species is 
now arrayed in its newest and most showy dress. Pairing having 
been accomphshod, each species sets about tho serious responsibili- 
ties impHed in the propagation of its kind. Some, during this sea- 
son, delight to nest in company, as Been in our own famiUar Rook, 
which will occupy in immense numbers the lofty trees of many a 
noble avenue, returning, year after year, for centuries, to the same 
spot. Such places, again, as Ailsa Oraig, Handu, uud f lamborough 
Head attract myriads of cliff-haunting species, which evince a similar 
tendency to reproduce in colonics. Few more wondejt'ul sights can 
be seen during the month of June than the precipitous face of one 
of these places, say Handa. Viewed from the sea, there may be 
descried tier upon tier of Guillemots and £azor-bills, &c., almost 
jostling ono another, from the manner in which thoy ore closely 
packed. Each species constitutes a separate community, and 
strictly confines itself to its own lei^ea. The Cormorants and 
Gulls have also their selected situations. Far above oil, in their 
curious rabbit-like burrows, in the sandy earth covering the sum- 
mit, congregate those oddest of all birds, the PulGns. The din and 
noise of such an assemblage is indescribable, and, when a gun is 
fired, almost unendurable ; while tho circling, swooping flight of the 
countless myriads thus disturbed communicates the sensation of 
complete bewilderment. Usually among these great gatherings will 
breed a pair of some raptorial bird, sneh as the Peregrine, or mora 
rarely the White-tailed Eagle, while in some of the more southern 
chffs the Chough uestles, and adds its cackling cry to the universal 
hubbub. The Common Herou, again, is a bird nesting in communi- 
ties, choosing, as a rule, large pine-wooda, — uotablc examples being 
tho celebrated heronry on the property of Sir George Musgrave, 
I!art., at Eden Hall, in Cumbcrlaud, which comprises about one 
hundred nests, and that on the estate of W. Amhurst T. Amhurst, 
Esij., at Didliugton Park, in Norfolk. Other and most interesting 
colonies of birds are to be seen, such as those of the Black-headed 
Gulls, in various counties, particularly at Scoulton and other meres 
in Norfolk. 

With respect to tho receptacles for their eggs when laid, birds offer 

" Lok Bad lek-Btillle sre Nonri 

affaim matrinionia! are carried on." . 

1 ■ Gftmo-bipdB and Wild Fowl of Sweden and Norwaj,' when ulludiog 

the courting oBsembliee of the C&peroailie, Blackeocb, Snipe, kc. 



ffer J 

tiere I 

lo7d ■ 

eto ■ 

m 



many interesting peculiarities. Some will content themsdves with 
the biire ledge of a rook, the pyriform shape of their eggs being the 
only safe-guard against tieir falling over the precipice; others deposit 
their eggs on a masa of sea-iveed or in a floating nnst compoaed of 
rotten aquatic plants, as ia the caae ■with the Grebes. Where a more 
ambitions structure ia erected, we find every degree of complication, 
from the loosely built platform, of the Wood-Pigeon to the elegant 
lichen-cruBted neat of the Long-tailed Tit. Each species shows in its 
nesting a most perfect adaptation to the exigences of the situation. 
Where, like the neat of the Sedge Warbiera, it ia swayed to and fro 
amidst the reeds by every passing wind, the deep purae-like shape of 
the interior is a safe provision against the eggs being blown out ; 
under our ea^es the homely Martin plasters its neat of mud ; the 
Goldcrest hangs its hammock-like cradle beneath the tip of a 
pendent fir bough ; and in holes of trees and walla the Tits delight 
to oonatruct their felted nests, 

I should fatigue my readers and exceed the latitude allowed me in 
tb'" introduction, were I to dwell longer upon the situations affected 
by various species in their nidification or the wondrous forms abown 
in the construction of their homes ; otherwise I might dilate upon. 
the ingenuity displayed in the dome-like nests of the Magpie, in 
the approach to that shape seen in those of the common House-Spar- 
row when built in trees, or in the fish-bone floor of the Kingfisher's 
retreat ; but all these will be found more fully dwelt upon in the 
descriptions attached to the representation of euch spedeH in the body 
of the work ; I may, however, remark in passing that the stmctur^ 
skill displayed by many of our birds ia far surpassed by that of certain 
foreign species ; and we are struck with aatoniahment when we gaze 
upon such nests as those of the Tailorbird, the Sociable Grosbeak, 
the Weaverbird, the Ictcri or Hang-neata. 

In writing upon subjects connected with ornithology I find the 
associations of my boyhood ever flitting before me. Well can I re- 
collect the dried body of the brightly coloured Kingfisher hanging 
from the cottager's ceiling, and supposed by its movements to point 
the direction of the wind* — a superstition now, like many others, 
happily abandoned. Wc'l do 1 reooUeot also the particoloured strings 
of eggs with which I and my companions delighted to festoon the 
walls, and which were rigorously destroyed in our games, before the 
termination of the year, in order to ward off the ill-luck otherwise 
supposed to ensue. I can still rcmemtwr with what intense admiration 
I was filled in gazing upon the nest and lovely blue eggs of the com- 
mon Hedge-Sparrow, and the pride I had in consigning them, when 
blown and thus bereft of half their beauty, to that string which was 
to hold so many of my subsequent findings. Cocqually with the 
spread of natural history generally, has advanced the interest felt in 
the coUecting of eggs— so much so that even amongst school-boys 
they now find their way into carefully appointed cabinets, in place 
* "But how now stands tho wind? 

Into what comer |)eeri mj halcynn'g bill ? 

MmuowK's Jew t^ Malta, 



of being used only as the plaything of an hour. The study of Oology 
at the present day may fairly claim an im])Drtant place amongst tho 
edeucea; and, to ^peak more specially on tho euhject, I could name 
several men, whoso studies have taken this direction, who follow 
their taste with such ardour that neither distance nor expense 
suffice to deter them. One of the most enthuBiastic of these yras 
the late Mr, John Wolley, who immured himself in the heart of 
Lapland for two or three winters for the sole purpose of being 
sufficiently early on the breeding-groundH to procure such rare egga 
as those of the Gyrfalcon, Pine-Grosbeak, Waxen Chatterer, and 
Bmew. To onhunco still further the interest attaching to the study of 
Oology, I have only to refer to the beautiful form, colour, and mark- 
ings of most egga, and to the difference in the number that are laid by 
various speciee. The Common Guillemot and the EaKorbill lay but 
one,and that verylarge in comparison with the bird; on the other hand 
the GrouEe will lay nearly a dozen; tho Swift lays invariably two, and 
the Swallow four, whUo some of our Tita deposit &om twelve to 
fourteen. Those eggs which are white are frequently placed in dark 
situations ; but this is by no means a constant rnlo, since in the case 
of the Wood- Pigeon and Turtle-Bove the egga are not only fully ex- 
posed to light, but owing to the shght structure of the nest, may be 
frequently descried through it. Their allies the Stock-Dove and 
Eook-Pigeon, however, lay theirs in the dark, as does also the Wr)'- 
neck, all threehaving white eggs. Oa the other hand the Nuthatch, 
Creeper, and many of the Tits, producing speckled eggs, deposit them 
in holes of trees and other places inaccessible to the light of day. 

From the egg to the chick is a natural sequence ; and here com- 
mences a stage in the life of birds which has been regarded by my- 
self with more than ordinary interest. If any one feature in my 
illustrations to the 'Birds of Great Britain' has special claims to 
originality, it is the representation of the young or infantine state of 
many of the species ; and this, I trust, will be duly appreciated by 
those who possess the work. In the imagination of most people 
young birds are blind, callow, helpless creatures, depending in every 
way on the fostering care of their parents, and instinctively openiug 
their gaping bills to receive the food assiduously brought to them. 
Such a helpless condition us this undoubtedly prevuls amongst 
tho young of nearly alt, if not all, the Inseesorial birds ; but com- 
pare these with those of other forms, and what vast differences are 
Been ! The tiuy offspring of the Grebe, emerging from its burst- 
ing shell in all tie vigour and activity of a fully organized being, is 
immediately capable of clambering, should danger approach, upon its 
mother's back, or of seeking security and concealment by diving 
under a floating leaf. Who is not famihar with the Duckling, which, 
from birth, equals, if it does not surpass, its parents in tho quick- 
neea of its movements, and in the skill with which it darts over the 
surface of the water in pursuit of flies or other insects ? As a means 
to an end (that of continuing ita existence unaided), the young Duck 
is as perfect as the old bird, though destitute of tho power of flight, 



to be accorded to it hereafter. What the wobbed feet and awimmmg^ 
capabilities ure to the imioature birds above mentioaed, the organa 
of flight are to the chick of the Gelinotte or Hazel-IIen, which, 
-within a da3' o£ its exit from the shell, is endowed with Guoh a deve- 
lopmeat.of its primarios and secondaries, that It can fl; from branoh 
to branfih, or dart after its parents through the wood, with an eaao 
and rapidity equal to that of any other httle bird. At this early 
stage the Gelinotte appears all wings, and, from the down which alotts 
covers its body, presents eomewhat the appearanoo of a gigantio I 
moth. The young of the Heron exhibit a very low degree of per- 
fection ; but those of the Crime, the Bustard, and the Plover are ngila 
on esolusion. The oolonring of the downy stage of young birda ia, 
in many instaoces, very beautiful, and fiintaatio indeed in form- 
exhibiting itself in stripings amongst the Grebea, yellow moss-like 
morbllags amongst the true Plovers, pointings on the face of the i 
Coot, and tortoiseshell blotches on the Black-headed OuU, Thia [ 
peculiar phase in bird-lifo exists but for a short period—six op j 
eight days j a change then takes place, in the course of which the \ 
downy dress, with all its pretty markings, is thrown or, racier, ' 
pushed off by a sucooBsion of real feathers. In the Starling, amon|f 1 
the InseBBOrial birds, it is exchanged for a uniform coat of brown, J 
which, before the summer ia over, is again transfoi-med into a 1 
spangled dress of great beauty. In the Golden Plover the moBB-lik« j 
marbling is exchanged for a yellow speckled plumage [ tho GrehQ I 
loses its dorsal stripes, and assumes a silken white breast ; the young I 
Coot, deprived of its painted face, soon presents an approach to the I 
colouring of its poront ; the grey middle dross of the young Heron 1 
gradually merges into that of ^e adult ; and the newly hatched i 
Faltoas, wbiob are blind, white- down-eoverod, sprawling creatures, 
pass through a variety of changes between their birth and the com- 
mencement of the second year of their existence, when they attain 
their perfect adult plumage, never again to bo altered. Changes 
of a similar description also occur among the Owls. Many, if not 
moat, birds, in fact, undergo a sucoeaaion of alterations in theip ] 
costume between birth and maturity ; but aa there is no rule without 
an exception, ho there are souie birds which are not subject to any 
great change of this kind : for instance, tho Kingfisher from the first 
is nearly as fine in colour as (vhen adult, as are also the Holler, tha 
Waxen Chatterer, the Tree-creeper, and the Nuthatch. 

In the foregoing passages I have described some of the remarkaW* j 
changes which birds undergo between youth and maturity ; hitt 
however interesting and curious may be the details of their iufantins 
states, their progress through middle hfe is not loss so — while thfl 
culminating point, so far as costume is coneomed, has not yet 
been reached ; for, wonderful as are tho phases through which they 
have progressed, these are as nothing compared with tiie assumption 
of the richer dress and colouring that obtains at the pairing-BeasDn. 
The transformations that take pijice in the Plovers and many other 
epeciee at this period are indeed most remarkable, and, I believe, littlQ 



known to any but omithologista. The white breasta of the Golden 
and Grey Plovers now become of a jetty black, and the same part of 
the Gedwits of a rusty rod ; the Lesser Oulla assume hooda of blown, 
and the Tema caps of glossy black, presenting a atriking contrast to 
their coral-red feet ; the Divers dofftheirbrowndreaaforachequered 
one of black and white ; the Sparrow acquires a black biU, the 
Chaffinch and the Hawfinch blue ones ; and the whole are now decked 
fur their summer dutiea, after the performance of which they 
again resume the garb of winter, and retain it until the following 
Bpfing. 

Of the myriads of created beings which adorn our globe, birds must 
necessarily rank highly in the estimation of man, and bo tj) him at 
all times objects of the greatest interest, inasmuch as they not only 
contribute in a hundred ways to his delight, but many of them to hia 
Buatonauce, The buoyant Bagle, soaring in aerial evolutions towards 
the sun, ehcits his admiratiuu ; and the rapid stoop of the Falcon ex- 
cites his wonder. The Owl, which with noiseless flight crosses his 
path during its nocturnal prowlings, induces his surprise at the readi- 
ness with which it discerns the a^e mouse and other small quadru' 
peds among the grass. If the Adds attract him to roam in the day- 
time, the Lark and the Cora-Bunting are his companiona; and he hears 
the voice of the Yaffle, proclaiming the approach of rain. If in the 
woods ho is induced to stroll, the coo of the Pigeon strikes hia ear, 
or iho tapping of the Woodpecker arrests his attention, the songs of 
the Thrush, the Ouzel, the Blackcap, and other sylvan birds, with 
the Nigbtingule at their head, afford food to his mind and sweet musio 
to hia ear ; the Crows, the Books and the Daws attract his notice j 
and he does not fail to observe the differenoo in their cries, aotions, 
and economies. In the neigbltourhood of streams the bright meteor- 
like flash of the Kingfisher, the heavy flutter of the Moorhen, and the 
skimming flight of tho Summer Snipe induce him to note how dif- 
ferently birds pass through the air, and to contrast the comparatively 
slow movements of tho latter with tho sweeping flight of the Swift, 
which nearly outstrips the wind. On the shores of the ocean a 
flood of new objects meet his gaze — the fairy-like Tern, the moro 
robust Gulls, with Cormorants and many other aquatic species. 
In the marsh he hears the Snipe drum, the Bittern boom, and tho 
plainly oolourod Beed Warblers pour forth a succession of querulous 
sounds when intruded upon. While enjoying the invigorating air of 
the downs, though now deprived of the pleasure of seeing the stately 
Bustard, perchonoe his attention ia arrested by the trippings of tho 
Dottrel ; the Stone-Plover may rise at liis feet, and wing ita way over 
the hill to a plaue of eoourity ; or the Wheatear and the Purze-Chat 
may attract his notice, tlie former by the whiteness of its rump, and 
tho latter by being perched on tho very top of a furze-bush ; and if 
it be autumn, the heavy, flapping flight of tho Pewit will show him 
that itJi structure is not so well adapted tor passing through the air 
UB that of the sharp-winged Golden Plover. 

lii studying the denizens of our inland waters other opportunities 
for drawing a comparison will present themselves j he will not fail 



ta remnrk the wojidrous principie of adaptation, which enables the 
fcigiitened Grobc nfterits plunge to progresa with the aid of itawinga 
3B rapidly beneath the surface aa the Coot with drooping legs otbt 
it. InBtaacoB almost without end of the delight which the study of 
birds affords might be cited ; but I will now say a few words on their 
usee as articles of diet. 

As a rule, birds are far Iobb utilized in this country than on the 
Continent, where even the smallest are eaten, the Eobin, the Wry- 
neck, and the Wren not excepted, aa a visit to the marketa of Foria 
and £«me will testify, the sylyati Beccaficos and the Ortolans being 
specially regarded as bonneg houches. 

Among the water-birds, the Scoters and other diving ducks, being 
regarded sa partly fish and partly fowl, are allowed to bo eaten aa 
fast days, and are therefore in great request; and Mr. Augustus Smith 
of Scilly tells me that the Prench eaQora who land on those islands 
freqneutly ask bis permiasion to Vill Cormorants and Bhags, consider- 
ing them, as they do, the beat of fowl. The Gannet ia largely eaten in 
the northern parts of the kingdom, while tbeFulmar not only forms the 
principal diet of the St.-Kildan, but its feathers constitute his bed, 
and ita oil furnishes him with medicine and the means of light. The 
late Mr, John MaegilliTray states that the eggs " are much esteemed 
by the natives, wlio gratify their partiality by robbing all the nesta in 
the month of May, and apparently trust to the bird laying a second 
time ;" and, adds Mr, Itobert Gray, " the young is Talued more than 
all the other tribes of birds taken together: it may be said to be their 
staff of life. The 12th of August, if a notable day on the moors, ia 
more so on the rocks of St. Eilda ; for it is the harvest of the people, 
who are aware that it will only Inst eight days ; and therefore sleep 
itaelf is banished for this aimco, seeing that the millions that may ho 
left on the eighth day after the 12th are sure to be off to their own 
fairy world for a seaaon. The nnmber killed in this one week may 
be from eit/hteen to Ivienty thousand." In a valuable paper on the 
Solan Goose or Gannet by Dr. 11. 0. Cunningham, published in ' The 
Ibis ' for 1866, it is stated, on the authority of the celebrated Harvey, 
that "the young, when they attain the magnitude of the domesda 
Goose, ore sweet and fit for eating ; but the lleeh of the old birds ia 
hard, !ean, and dry." And liay in his ' Itineraries ' mentions that 
"the young ones arc esteemed a choice dish in Scotland. Aa the bird 
feeds upon mackrel and herring, the flesh of the young smells and 
tastes strong of these fish." 

At tlie present time, according to Br. Cunningham, "from one to 
two thousand of the young binls ore killed annually for sale, and 
after being plucked obtain a price of from sixpence to a shilling each ; 
at one time they figured at ttie tables of the Scottish monarchs, and 
more recently were esteemed by the citizens of Edinburgh and other 
towns, being roasted and eaten as a relish before dinner. Now I be- 
lieve their consumption is chiefly limited to the lower claaacB ; and I 
have been informed on good authority that, after being parboiled and 
having had their legs cut off, thoy are sold in considerable numbers 
to the Irish poosants who come over to Scotland at harvest time." 



26 

It is quite impossible to give aa estimate of the numbers of wild 
Ducks and Geese that are yearly consumed in the three kingdoms ; 
but that they are immense will be readily conceived when it is 
stated that from the various deboys, and from the Continent, hun- 
dreds^ if not thousands, are weekly sent to the markets of the metro- 
polis and other large towns, to which the professed wild-fowl shooter 
also transmits his quota of Wigeons, Pochards, and Brent Geese. 
The Common Pewit and the Golden Plover are largely consumed, as 
are also the Stints and other strand-loving birds. The supply of 
Snipes and Woodcocks is dependent in a great measure upon the nature 
of die season, as is also, to a certain extent, that of the Wood-Pigeon, 
the Partridge, the Grouse, the Pheasant and other game-birds. The 
Dottrel, which passes over our islands from south to north during 
the month of -May, is subjected to a large annual toll, and, with the 
imported and fattened Quail and the Ortolans, forms delicate viands 
for the tables of the wealthy and of the epicures who require such 
whets for their appetites, and who can afford their purchase. Be- 
sides the species above mentioned, many other kinds, and even the eggs 
of several, are diligently sought for; those of the Lapwing, Black- 
headed Ghills, and Guillemots, especially the former, being in great 
request. These remarks may appear trite, but they serve to show 
that many of our birds are extensively utilized. 

Much has been written upon the classification, general structure, 
power of flight, and senses of birds ; but were I to go into detail on 
these matters I should only be reproducing what has been so ably 
treated by such men as MacgiUivray, Owen, Jerdon, Flower, Huxley, 
Parker, and others. I cannot, however, conclude the present intro- 
duction without touching lightly on some of these points. 

Most writers on Natural History have placed the class Aves imme- 
diately above the Eeptiles and below the Mammals, from either of 
which they are clearly separated by the distinctive characteristics 
shown in their general form, habits, feathered covering, and powers 
of flight. It is in regard to some of these that I would now wish 
to say a few words. All those who have studied the anatomy of 
birds, even but cursorily, must have become specially aware of the 
wonderful adaptation shown by nature in fashioning the skeleton so 
as to enable the creature to support itself in the air with the least 
possible exertion, and propel its body with varying degrees of swift- 
ness through that element ; they will have noticed that this power of 
flight is aided to a considerable extent by the fact of the bones being 
hollow, and their cavities communicating for the most part with the 
cells of the lungs — a provision ensuring the maximum of strength 
with the minimum of weight. 

The wings of birds modify in various ways the velocity with 
which they are capable of cleaving the air. Some, like the Land- 
Rail and the Bittern, with rounded wings, evince considerable reluct- 
ancy to quit the ground, and, when they do so, merely fly to a short 
distance ; others, such as the Auks and Penguins, have, indeed, but 
the rudiments of those organs ; while others, again, have their wings 
and pectoral muscles developed to such an extent that extraordinary 



rates of velocity and distances traversed have been recortJed. Thi 
Mr. Charioa Bonor states, in hia ' Forest Creatures,' tliat the flight ■ 
the Eagle is aixty feet per SQoond, being at the rate of sontewliat 
more than forty miloa par hour; and my friend W. MTiite Ooaper 
mentions, in his 'Zoological I^otes and Anecdotes,' that "the flight 
of a Hawlc is oalculuted at one hundred and fifty milea an hour 
and the anecdoto of the Falcon helongiug to Henry IV. of Frano^ 
which flow, in one day, from Foutaineblean to Malta, a distaaoe of 
thirteen hundred and fifty mUes, is well authenticated." 

Mr, Harting, in bis interesting ' Ornithology of Shakespeare,' met 
tions that the flight of the Common Swallow (Miiiiailo ruatiea) ht 
been computed to be at the rate of ninety miles an hour. If this b« 
a just computation, that of the Alpine Swift must be twice as great'; 
but those ai'e as nothing when compared with the velocity of tltf 
Frigate-bird {Tackypetea agui'/uB), which, says Audubon, "ia poBseaae ' 
of a power of flight I oonceive superior to that of perhaps any otlii 
bird. However swiftly the Cayenne Torn, the smaller Gulls, or th« 
Jager move on tbe wing, it seema a matter of mere sport to it b| 
overtake any of them." 

"There are two facta observable in all birds of great and lonj 
sustained powers of flight," romarlts the Duko of Argyll, in 
admirable ' Eeign of Law;' " the first is that they are always provw 
with wings which are rather long than broad, and sometimes 
treraely narrow in proportion ti> their length ; the second is that 
wings are always sharply pointed at the ends. Let us look at 
medmnical laws which absolutely require this stmcttire for the puDi 
pose of powerful flight, and to meet which it haa accordingly bee% 
devised and provided. One law appealed to in making winga rathof 

long than broad is simply the law of leverage and a long 

wing is nothing but a long lever. The mecbanieal principle or law, 
as is well known, is this : — that a very small amount of motion (or 
motion through a vory small space) at the short end of a layer, pro* 
duces a great amount of motioa (through a long space) at the opposite' 
or longer end. This action requires, indeed, a very intense foroo b9 
be applied at the shorter end ; but it applies that force with immense 
advantage for the purpoao in view, because the motion which is tiauK- 
mitted to the end of a long wing is a motion acting at that point 
through a long space, and is therefore equivalent to a very heavy 
weight lifted through a short apace at tho end which is attached ta 
the body of the bird. Now, this is precisely what b required for 
the purpose of flight." The preceding extract is sufficient for my 
present purpose ; but my readers will find many other intereatisg:' 
remarks, on the laws affecting and governing the flight of birds, in 
the work above mentioned, to which I would earnestly direct their 
attention. 

Birds, like other animals, are endowed with the usual senseB ; bat 
these vary in degree of perfection in accordance with tho variety ia 
their habits. That that of sight is very highly developei' is ampl/> 
teatifled in the Kestrel, whose cyoa must bo almost telescopi 
euaWe it to seo an insect or a mouse on the ground from the ( 



elevBtioii at whioh it usually hovcTH ; the familiar Eobis, who dia- 
coTETs the wriggling worm at a distance of many yards, must also 
he endowed with acute powers of vision; nor oan it be less perfect 
iu the Shrike, who sallies fourth from his ch(»en branoh to seoure 
with unerring nini the passing fly or beetle. The Vulture, provided 
with organs of equal if not even greater power, descries from an 
enormous distance a dying came!, a stranded sheep or any other 
earthly creature which has met with misfortune, and by his peculiar 
motions gives the cue to others of its kind from still greater dis- 
tances and various points of the compass ; for " wheresoever the 
carcase is, there will the Eagles be gathered together." 

The sense of amell is most acute in the AnalidfB or Duek tribe, 
hut aooording to my experience seems to be entirely wanting in the 
Baptores, Vultures, Eagles, &c. 

That of hearing would appear to be most perfect in the Owls, as 
testified by their highly developed auditory conch ; at the same time 
it is by no means wanting in many other families of birds. 

Neither can the sense of feeling be absent from the probing bill 
of the Woodcock and the members of the Scohpaeidie generally. 

Should any of my readers wish to enrich their knowledge in this 
direction, I must refer them to the works of the writers mentioned 
above. In ' The Birds of Great Britain ' my chief aim has been to 
give a faithful ropresentatioii of the various speolea, and to record, in 
addition to the notes of others, such observations as my lengthened 
study in this branch of science hag enabled me to make, 

The following arrangement will give a general view of ' The BirdH 
of Great Britain,' with some additional information leapecting them 
obtmned during the progress of the work, and notices of those species 
which have occurred in the British Islands but which are not, in my 
opinion, entitled to a place in our fanna and consequently have not 
been figured. 



ORDER BAFTORES, 

Family VULTURIDiE. 

Tlie Vultures, a family of birds whoso proper home is the warmer 
countries of the world, are but feebly represented in the British 
Islands, where, indeed, the appearance of the two species which have 
occurred therein most ho reguded as purely aceidental, our islands 
being fortunately exempt trom those visitAtions wlueh render the 
presence of these useful scavengers a matter of great importanee. 
The family comprises about twenty-four species, divided among ten 
or twelve genera, the greater part of which inhabit Eastern Europe, 
A&ica, and India ; the remainder frequent America, and ezt«nd their 
ranm from, the Vnited States to Chile. 



Genus Neophrok. 

1. NbOPHEON PBRCN0PTEEU3 VoL L PI. I. 

EoYPTiAH VTrMTniB. 

Wo have very positive evidence that this bird has beea killed i^ 
SomorBctshiro and Eases, of which occurronoos the particulars will 
be found in my account of the species. 

Goniis Gtp8. 

2. Uspa FuXYCs. 
Griffon Vulture. 

This bird has still leas claim to a place in the British Fauna than 
the Egyptian Vulture, I have therefore not given a pkto of it, not- 
withstanding that its ooourrunco has been recorded by Thompson, 
and that Tarrell has figured it from a specimen " caught by a, youtli 
on the rocks near Cork harbour in the spring of 1943. The bird 
was full grown ; the piumi^o perfect, without any of the appcarancos 
consequent on confinement ; it woa very wild and savage, and was in 
perfect health. " 

This Vulture is of lai^e aixe and proportionate strength, poeeesscs 
great sustaining powers of Sight, and enjoys a widely extended geo- 
graphical range, beiog found in Germany, France, on the Pyrenees, 
in Spain. It olso occurs in tha Grecian archipelago, Candia, Egypt 
and other parts of North Africa ; and Dr. Jerdon states that it also 
inhabits Western Asia and the Himalaya fountains. It makes a 
large nest, 3 or 4 feet in diameter, on rocks and high trees, and lays 
two, or aomctimca three, elongated white eggs nearly as large as 
those of u Goose. 

Family FALCONID^. 

Subfamily AQUILIN.^. 

Eagles are very generally spread over the temperate and warmer 
portions of the globe. Four species frequent tho British Islands — 
namely, two of the genus Aquiltt, one oiHaliaetus, and a Fmidion. 

' Genus A«uiLi. 

3. AariLi cnsTHAtros Vol. I, PL II. 

Golden Eaule. 

A bird of tho northern portion of Britain, where it still breeds, 
as it formerly did in Derbyshire, as it is also said te have done in 
North Wales. Tho young are apt to wander southwards ; and henee 
we occasionally see immature c^famples in England, but seldom adults. 

4. Aqctih N^ETiA Vol. I. PI. m. 

Spotted EiotE. 

Tho native home of this bird is the eastern portions of Europe, 



North Africa, and India. To England its visits are purely aecci- 
dental; yet it tas beon killed therein six or seven times — namely, 
once in Hampshire, twice in Cornwall, and thrice in Ireland. 

When mentioning in my account of this Bpecies that the Becflnd, 
Cornish esample, killed near Camanton, is now in tho Tmro Mu- 
seum, I ought to have added " to which institution it was presented 
by E. Bryc^es Willyams, Esq." — an omission which I now rectify. 

Genus Halia£tus. 
B, HALIAftniS AtBiorttA Vol, I. PI IV. 

Sba-Eaolb. 

Inhabits Greenland, Europe, and North Africa. More maritime 
in its habits than the Golden Eagle. Breeds in the north. Feeds 
on fish and garbage of any kind thrown up by tho sea. 

Since my account of the Sea-Eagle was printed. Captain. Elwes 
has published, in ' The Ibis' for 1869, an interesting paper on the 
" Bird-Stationa of the Outer Hebrides." 

Speaking of the Spiant Isles, ■' a small group lying in the Minch, 
about six miles from the coast of Lewis," he says : " There is a 
celebrated eyry of the White-tailod Eagle (^Raliaetus albicilla) here, 
which has been used from time immemorial and is mentioned by 
Martin, who wrote nearly two hundred years ago. I think it ia as 
perfectly inaccessible as any nest can be, owing to the way in. which 
tte rock overhangs, and, if the birds are not destroyed, will remain in 
use for centuries.'' 

Genus Pait Mos. 
G. Panwon hawaEtcs Vol. I. PI. V. 

OSPREI. 

Formerly common in Scotland, where on most of the ruined 
castles in the neighbourhood, and on the islands in the lochs, its 
eyry migbt have been found ; now it has become scarce, and, unless 
it be protected, will soon be extirpated. If, as has been supposed, 
there is but one species of this form, then it may be said to bo 
almost universally distributed over the other parts of tho Old World, 
ns it also ia in the greater part of the New. Lives almost wholly 
on flsh. Is a summer visitant, arriving at its breeding-places in the 
spring, and departs southward in autumn. 



Subfamily BUTEONIN^. 

Borinrds are found in nearly every country of fhe globe. The 
fauna of Europe comprises three or four species, oil of which have 
been killed in Britmn ; but of these one has but slender claims to bo 
enometated amoDg the biids of oar islands. 



?. BtmidT 

CowMotr BczziRD. 

Formerly very common in many of our countiea j it atill breeds 
in some of them, particolarly in certain parts of Kent. 

8. BirlEO CMKBTORTJM Vol. I. PI. VII, 

Faleo dtsertorum, Daud. Traitc d'Orn. torn. ii. p. 162. 

ct'rfefww, Levaill. 

vaJpiniti, Licht. 

eapensU, part., Schleg. 

. tachardm, Bree, Birds of Eur. vol. i. p. 97. 

flJTirepj, Brehm. 

Mr, J. Clarke Hawkshaw has favoured me with the skin of a 
BuKzard which, he tells me, was killed at Everlcy, in Wiltshire, 
in Septeraher 1S(>4. After having made a careful examination of 
the specimen, Mr. J. E. Gurney assures me that it is an eXEunple 
of the species to which the above names have heen assigned by the 
various authors mentioned, that of dtgertorum haviiLg the precedence. 
The countries frequented by it are Algeria, Mogador, Kuropetui 
Turkey, the mouths nf the Volga, Ryria, India, and Ceylon. 

Mr. Gurney considers that there is no specific ditferenee between 
thia hird and that -which ia named in coUectious Buteo cirkntisi 
He came to this conclusion after examining specimens from Uoga- 
dor, Tungiera, Emeroum, and the mouths of the Volga. It is 
included by Scblcgcl in his ' Fauna Japonica ; ' so that it has a very 
wide range. 

" The appearance of this bird when alive," says Mr. Gurney, " is 
less heavy and more elegant than that of B. vutijaria. My lirfng 
specimen, which was duU-brown when I bought it, has moulted into 
a rich rufous plumage ; and one that was aJivo in tie Zoological 
Gardens a few years since, underwent a similar change.'' Accord- 
ing to M. Favier, it nests among the rocks, and tho male takes ita 
turn in sitting. The egg has a strong resemblance to that of the 
Black Kite, but is a little more pointed, and the ground-colour a 
cream-white, that of the former having a greenish tinge. 

Mr. Gurney states that " tho cere, tarsi, and feet of this Buz~ 
KOrd are lemon-yellow ; the irides are sometimes light-haiel, and at. 
others yellow, probably nsauming the latter colour as Uie bird 
advances in ago ; a similp.r variation, however, which exists in the 
irides of the Common Buzzard is not always referable to age, a« 
I have ascertained by experience," 

9. BWEO J-IKEiTta. 

lied- shouldered Buzzard. 

It becomes necessary to notice this species, a single (aunpl* 
having been shot ut EiiiguB«ie, in Aberdeenshire, on the Stith ofi 



31 

Febrtiary) 1863. It ii )iow in the eolle^timi of 'Mt. IfeWbomb^^ of 
Eeltwell Hall, Brandon, Norfolk. As this is a mtrictly Korth- 
American species, I do not consider it necessary to figu!^ it ; bnt snch 
of my readers as may desire to knoT^ its history can refer to the 
writings of Wilson, Audubon, and other authors on American birds. 

CfenUB AltCHittUTEO. 

10. AacHiBinlBO lAgoptts .*».»».» VoL I. PL Vltl* 

Eotr&H^LSQOJBi) Btjzzabb. 

Arrives in the British Islands in autumn, occasionally in con- 
siderable numbers, when moving in migratory flocks. Its nest is 
stated to have been once found near £tackness, in Yorkshire, and also 
in the neighbourhood of Banff (vide ' Ibis,' 1865, p. 12). 

Genus Psbkis. 

Of this form there are two very distinct species-^ne, the P* 
cpivoruSy inhabiting Europe, and the other the P* eristahis of India* 
The natural food of both is honey, bees and wasps, and their 
larvee. 

11. PEBiris AMvontis » . . VoL 1. tt Ut. 

Hoitbt-Btjzzabd. 

A summer visitant to us and to Central EujRype, which, aftef * 
breedings migrates southward to pass the winter. 



Subfamily ASTURIN^. 

* 
Genus Astub. 

Of this form two species have been regarded as pertaining to the 
British fauna — namely, the Astur jpalumbarius of Europe, and the A. 
atrieapillus of America. In the present work only the former has 
been figured. 

12. ASTITB PALTTMBABLTTS .».».. i • % Ydl. I. PL Xt 

Goshawk. 

Very generally dispersed over Europe, North Africa, India, and 
China ; occasionally killed in Scotland, where it sometimes breeds. 

13k AiTUB ATBICAPILLTJSk 

American Goshawk. 

This American wanderer has certainly been killed at least three, 
times in the British Islands — once in Scotland and twice in Ireland: 
Bespecting the first of these examples, Mr. B. Gray, in his recently 
published * Birds of the "West of Scotland,' says : — 

'< In May 1869, when visiting the town of Brechini in Ftttftrshire, 



I WM fortunate in finding a very handaome specimen of this Gos- 
hawk in the hands of a bird-shiffer there, who had obtained it a 
short time previoasly from a keeper in Perthshire, along with a 
number of Snow-Buntings and other birds shot b^ him on the flanks 
of Shechallion, and all recently skinned." 

The following notes respecting the second example were publLshed 
by Sir Victor A. Brooke in ' The Ibis' for 1870. "I have the plea. 
sure of informing you of the occurrence in Ireland of Aitwr atriea- 
pillia, an example of which wus flhot in the Ualtee Moaotnins in 
February last, and was at first believed to be a common Goshawk 
{A, palumbariiis) ; but having since had the opportunity of ex- 
amining some epeciraens of that species in Lord Lilford's collection, 
I immediately detected the difference between them and the Qalt«e 
bird. Upon returning to Ireland, with the kind permission of Dr. 
Carte I compared it with a specimen of A. atrieapUha in the Dnblin. 
Society's collection, and cleared up any doubt that remained on 
my mind, the closely set transverse bars, the longitudinal streaks 
(stronger and bolder than in the European species), the general dusky 
appearance of the breast, and the dark slate-blue head, removing aU 
question on the subj ect. The bird was a mature female, and wdghed 
31b. 7oz, ; the ovary was somewhat enlarged ; and the stomach con- 
tained the remains of a rabbit." Of the third example, all that has 
been recorded is that it was shot shortly after the above, near Par- 
sonstown. King's County, and was also a female. 

A certain amount of interest attaches to the occurrence of these 
Goshawks, inoamuch as it tends to show how frequently American 
birds cross the Atlantic to our shores ; but if all such visitants were 
to be figured, how greatly extended would be the ' Birds of Great 
Britain.' 



Subfamily ACCIPITRINiE. 
GenuB AcCTPirEK. 

Of this genus only one species frequents the British Islands ; but 
several others are found in Africa, India, China, North and South 
America. The whole of them are active dashing birds, often flying 
near tho ground and euddonly BUiprisiug the amalJer insesaorial 
species, upon which they principally prey. The bcscb difl'er consider- 
ably in size, the males being much smaller than the females. A. 
character by which they are at once distingubhcd from the Aatunnct 
consists in the groat length of their middle toes. 



14. AcoiprTBB sJBua Vol. I. PI, SI. 

BriKROW-HAWK. 

A Ooauoon, ttationorj' spociee, breeding in all our counties. 



Subfamily PALCONINjE. 



Genua Falco. 



The members of this gemis are preeminently bold, courageous, and 
sanguinary, many of them, especiaily the Gyr Falcons and PeregrineB, 
not hesitating to attack in the air birdo much latter than themaelvea ; 
"and when trained for hawking, as they have been from time im- 
memorial, their courage and daring ia so much enhanced that they 
will engage with birds of even larger size than they do in their wild 
state. Btructurally they are better adapted for a quick and arrow- 
like flight than any other of the llaptores. 

One or other of the numerous species of this group inhabit nearly 
every portion of the globe. The Gyr Falcon and Its immediate 
allies are almost solely confined to the high northern regions, whence 
they migrate during autiimn and winter towards the equator, but 
never across it. 

The Peregrines are much more generally difiperaed than the 
Gyr Falcons, the various species frequenting moat countries both 
north and south; thus the form exists in Europe, Asia, and 
Australia, in Africa also from the Atlas range to the Cape of 
Good Hope, and in America from the latitude of Hudson's Bay 
to Terra del Fuogo. The smaller Falcons, such as the Hobby 
and Merlin, are also more or less represented in each couatry, 
but generally, although not exclusively, are of different species. 

15. Falco islandus Vol. I. PI. XI. 

loELAND Faicon. 

The subject of the great northern Falcons will be found so fully 
treated of m the body of the work that it would bo mere tautology 
to say more here than that this bird is, as its name implies, a native 
of Iceland, and, but more sparingly, of Greenland. It is also said 
to be found in Hudson's Bay and other of the csfrome northern 
parts of America. Occasionally adults, but more frequently young 
birds of the year, wander as far south as the British lelauds. 

16. Palco istAnnus . Vol. I. PI. XII. 

Iceland Falcon (Young). 

Appears to be darkly coloured from the neat, but never so deep in 
tint as that of the true Gyr Falcon, 



17. Famo oakdicanb Vol. I. PI. XIII. 

GsEBirLANn Falcoh. 
This species inhabits the icy r^ons of Gi'eeniand, Hndson's Bay, 
and other parts of Arctic America, and w less fVecjuently seen in the 
British Islandfl in the adult state than the F. 'islatidtis, from which it 



is diatiiiguished by the estreme whitenesa of ita plumage, ami b] 
the youug being lightly coloured from the neat. 

18. Palco C4Ndio*ns Vol. I. PI. XIY, 

Gekkblah» FAicoif (dark mue). 

My plate represents a supposed dsrk race of the preceding species; 
but as the strongly defined majks on the back vary considerably in 
different individuals, and the tail-feathers differ still more so, aomi 
being wholly white, others barred, and others, again, having irregular 
dark marldngH, I am induced to regard these darkly marked birds 
the result of a cross between. F. ulandus and F. mndicans. The 
young appear to be lightly coloured from the nest ; but a considerable 
difference takes place at llio first moult, when the feathers of the 
back are ornamented with long and broad blotches, offering a strong 
contrast to the narrow, lunate cross markings of the old bird, I have 
been induced to give two figures of these uimsnally marked birds. 

19. Faloo CANMOAna Vol. I. PI. XV, 

GEEESLAifD Falcon (dark raco, youug). 

Lord Cawdor's bird, now iu the British Museum, from which 
my figure of the Gyr Palcon in the ' Birds of Europe,' and Mr. 
Tarrell's in his 'British Birds,' were taken, is a yonng specimen of 
this race ; and it is in this stage that most of the individuals 
found with us. 

2U. Palco qtkfalco Vol. I. PI. XVL 

NoRWEOiAS, or Gyr Palcos, 
The true Gyr Palcon of Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Western 
Russia is a smaller bird than the three preceding ; and both the adult 
and yonng are darker in colour. As yet, it haa not been found in 
the British Islands, although its native country is so nonr at hand. 
The plate has been given to show the differences which exist among 
those northern Falcons, to which Professor Kaup has applied the 
separate generic appellation of Hierofaleo. 

21. FiLco PEKBQHiNirs Vol. I. PI. XVir. 

Pereqbine Falcos. 

Besides Great Britain, the Peregrine frequents Greenland, Icdand, 
the whole of Europe, North Africa, India, and China. 

The following note, illustrative of one of the habits of this bird, 
kindly communicated to me by the Duke of Argyll, will prove of 
interest. It is dated from Inverary, June 4, 1868. " I find we are 
rich this year in nests of the Falconid<x : — two of the Peregrine ; two 
of the Hen-Hurrier, and a third, the spot not yet discovered ; and one 
of the Merlin, One of my keepers, who ia, I think, a reliable man, 
tells me that the day before yesterday, when he was watching one of 
the Peregrines' nests, he saw the male come from across Loch Fyne 



wiUi B bird is hie talons. When he cried, the hen bird came out of 
the precipice and joined him in the air, and took ironi the male the 
bird he was carrying. This must have been a pretty sight.'' 

22. Falco scbbuteo Vol. I. PI. XVllI. 

Hobby. 

A summer bird in our islands, where it breeds in woods, either in the 
forsaken neat of a Crow or in one which it builda for itself. I have re- 
ceived Hobbies from other countries besides Britain and the eoutinent 
of Europe, viz. India, China, and Africa, but not from America, where 
indeed, it is not found. This bird and some others of the same form 
have been deeaaed sufficiently distinct from the other Falcons to con- 
stitute it the type of a separate genus ; by those authors, therefore, 
who adopt minute divisioua of genera, it is tcrraod Hypotriarehin 
subbiiteo, instead of Fako iabbuteo. It is lese bold and sanguinary 
than the Peregrine or the Merlin, feeds on inaeota to a considerable 
extent, particularly Chaffers, and consequently is somewhat crepus- 
cular in its habits, such lai^e insects being principally obtainable a& 
tliey flit round the tops of great trees after sunset. 

23. Faico ^alon Vol. I. H. XIX. 

UEBLIIf. 

This bird has also been removed by Professor Kaup from the geaus 
Falco into that of ^SI»<ifon, a division which, being a very natural one, 
the scientific ornithologist will not repudiate; but in a work on our 
native birds these minute divisions are scarcely admissible, since the 
finding of so many of their old frieuds imder now appellations could 
scarcely be otherwise than distastefal to my readers. In many in- 
stances where I have departed from the practice of the older natu- 
ralists. I have been not lightly censured for the innovation ; but the < 
time will come when the generic appellation bestowed upon each 
distinct form will be more generally adopted. 

The Merlin of the British Islands is by no means the only repre- 
sentative of the genua .Stolon : for there are several very distinct 
species in other countries, the names of which would be given were 
I writing a work on general ornithology instead of one on the birds 
of a limited area. 

The F. asalan is a resident speciefl, and very generally dispersed 
over the three kingdoms. 

Genua EnrrHKOPus. 

At least two species of this elegant form are known. Of these, 
one, E. vespertinvs, is a native of South and South-eastern Europe, 
but occasionally wanders into Britain ; the other, E. amurensU, is 
found on the Amur, in Nepaul, and over the greater part of South- 
eastern Africa. In disposition these birds are leas sanguinary than - 
the true Falcons : and their food consists principally of insects and 
their tarvK. 



24. EbTTHEOPUS FBSPBRTIKTrS Vol. I. PI, XX. 

OBANIiE-LEGaBD HoDDT. 

Altliough truly but an iicciduntal visitor, at least thirty spec 
have from time to time heen killed in the British Islands, the | 
greater number in England — Ireland and Scotland contributing only 

Genus TiNntrNCirius. 

The birda trivially termed Kestrels comprise many species which 
are very generally dispersed over the Old World, AustTolia not ex- 
cepted. In the New they are less numerous ; and those that ore there 
found have been formed by Professor Kaup into a distinct genus, 
that of Pacilomia. 



25. TnrNTiHOULirs AiAunAitrus Vol. I. PI. XXI. 

Kesteel. 

The "Windhover," as this bird b also termed, is so well knowTi 
to every one who visits the country and " has eyes to see, and a mind 
to observe," that any special comment respecting it is unnGceaaary. 
The whole of Britain, the continent of Europe, Africa, India, and 
China are also frequented by it. Its food is much varied ; for it eats 
mice, insecte, niollusks, fish occasionally, and the young of most of 
the field-loving birds which nest on the ground, and, when oppor- 
tunity offers, does not object to the young of the Partridge and 
Quail. Such propensities, however, are in my opinion but a trifling 
counterpoise to the usefulness of this elegant bird; in faet it deserves 
protection instead of that estermination which will be its fate if a 
more friendly feeling than at present exists cannot bo created in its 
' favour. 

26. TlNNTJNCTTLUS CEBCHBIS. 

Leaser Kestrel. 

In Juno 1868, the Muaoiira of the Yorkshire Philosophical 
Society was " fortunate enough to obtain a fine specimen, killed 
within a few raiies of York, of a species of Falccn, the occurrence 
of which in this countrj' has, I believe, never before been authenti- 
cally recorded, namely the Little Kestrel of South-eastern Europe, 
(Tinnfincvlus cenehrh, Naum.). The specimen, which is a mature, 
but apparently not an old male, was presented to the Museum by 
Mr, John Harrison, of Wilstrop Hall, near Green Hammerton, who 
shot it upon his farm at that pla.ce, after having observed it for some 
little time flying about. The date, he thinks, was about the middle 
of last November ; but of this he took no note, as he at first thought 
the bird was merely a small and curious variety of the common 
Kestrel. It, however, presents all the distinctive charaeters of 
Tiimanculux cenehris, among which the yellowish -white daws may 
be mentiourfl as affording an easy means of identifying the bird." 

This bird Kaa been forwarded by the authoritiea of the Museum 



for my inspection ; and I find it to be, as reprcsentod, an exampio of 
the above epeeius. 1 have not, however, figured thia bird ; it would 
be desirable to Beo other examples. 

27. TiNNUJScnLua spiRVEHnie. 
American Kestrel. 
A specimen of this bird, killed in Yorkshire, is now in the posses- 
sion of the Eev. C. Hudson, of Trowell Eectory, near Nottingham, 
who states that it has been in bis possession for about twelve years, 
and that he purchased it from a joiner named Brown, formerly living 
at Thorpe Hall, who was an enthusiastic collector of birds, and in 
the habit of preparing them for people in that neighbourhood, 
Erowii's at't'ouut of the bird, which lie denominated the " American 
Falcon," was that it was shot between Bridlington and Bridlington 
tiuay, one Sunday morning, by a man who sold it to him for eigh- 
teen pence. Through the kindness of Mr. F. J. 8. Foljambe, 
Mr. Hudson kindly sent up his bird for my inspection, when I 
found it to be a very fine adult male of the American Kestrel, and 
not, as supposed, a second example of the T. eenchria. 



SubfamOy MILVIN^, 
Genus Milvus. 

The true Kites, or the members of this genua as now restricted, 
are birds of the Old World, over which they are so generally distri- 
buted that, with the exception of New Zealand and Polynesia, one 
or other of the few species known are to be found in every part of 
it. Their disposition is less cruel than that of the true Falcons ; 
and they feed principally on garbage ; they are consequently useful 
scavengers, and, moreover, arrant thieves. 

28. MiLvtra reoalib Vol. I. PI. XXII. 

KiiE or Olea£. 
The common Kite of England, which in Shakspeare's time might 
probably be hourly seen soaring over the metropolisj is now, thanks 
to the exterminating hand of man, rarely to he seen in any part of 
the country. If a solitary pair should occasionally be met with, 
they should bo haded with reverence as being almost the solo rem- 
nant of a departed race, so far as our islands are concerned ; for in 
Central and Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, and North Africa the spe- 
cies stiU existfl. The Kites build large, grotesque, untidy nests of 
moss, wool, rags, and rubbish of every description ; and when our 
species was plentiful, it must have kept the housewife on the alert 
for her frilla and furbelows hung out to diy on the village hedge, 
fully justifying Sbakspeare'a line ; — 

" When the Kite bullde lcx>k to lesur linen." 

Inhabits Europe generally, Asia Minor, and North Afcica. 



29. MiLvuH MiuKAJts Vol. I. PI. XXlll. 

Blaok Kite. 

I hove meutioiied above the approsimate extenniiiatlou of the 
English Kite ; and I may now etate that, should such unhappily be 
the ultimate result, it aeems likely that its place would be supplied 
bj auother species, the Milvus migraaa, which would seem to show 
some indication of an int«ntion to come among as, at least in one 
instance, as will be seen on reference to my plate of the spociea, 
which was taken from a specimen killed at Newcaatle'Oii-Tyne. 

Inhabits Central Europe, Siberia, Palestine, Africa, and Australia, 
in which latter country it is only an accidental visitor. 

Genus Madolbbus. 

The single species of this form is remarkably different from all 
the other Kites. Its more slender structure, lengthened wings, and 
long forked tail indicate that it possesses vast powers of flight, and 
tliat it would espericnce but little difficulty in making a transit &om 
its native country to even very d^talit shores, when ciroumstauces 
force it to leave its own, 

30. NiTTCLeiroa puECATna. 
Sw alio W' tailed Kite. 

This bird is so strictly American that I have not given a figure of it, 
notwithstanding it has been killed at least five times in our iaiands, 
the earliest of these occurrences bnving been at BaUachulish, in 
Argyleabire, in 1772 — since which others have taken place at "Wens- 
leydiile, at Eamham, in CtimberEand, and on the Mersey. 



SubfamUy CIECIN^. 

The Harriers, comprising numerous species, are so widely dispersed 
over the face of the glol)e as to warrant the use of the term uniyeraal 
with reference to their distribution. In each of the five groat divi- 
sions of the globe one or other of the seventeen known species are to 
be found. In Europe there are four, three of which inhabit and 
breed in Britain, In habits and economy they do not resemble the 
Falcons, the Buzzards, or the Kites, bat assimilate somewhat to the 
Strigidae, or Owls, Their actions, indeed, are peculiar to themselves ; 
and their great fiapping wings render them conspicuous objects when 
flying over a marsh or the sunny side of a moor, with keenly search- 
ing eyes, in pursuit of their food, which varies with the nature of the 
locality. If in the fen, reptiles, from the snake to the newt, are 
captured and eaten, as are frogs and insects ; at the breeding-season 
yonng Snipes, Moorhens, or other nestlings are fortunate if they 
escape their scrutinizing eyes. They mainly neat on the ground, 
and lay four or five white eggs. Their flight is somewhat laboured 
and flapping. 



1 

i 



•3Q 

OinithglogiatB h&TQ divided the Harriera into five different genera ; 
uud eveii the three which inhabit Britain have ea^h received & 
separate generic title, a procedure 'which may aeem auperfluoua to 
aome peraotiB ; but before placing hia veto upon it each objector 
should have all the known species before him, when he would per- 
ceive that the great Marsh Harrier, with ita brown plumage, differs 
considerably from the slender aah-coloured bird with its barred tail, 
and both from the uniformly coloured and stoater built Hen-Hanier. 
Knowing how strong the feeling is against the multiplication of 
generic t^rms, I have in this work retained them all in the genua 
Uiroui. 

31. Cmcus .KBUOiNOBira Vol. I. Pla. XXIV. & XXV. 

Maebh Haebieb. 

The draining operationa which have been carried on of late years 
in various parts of the country have rendered many of the diatricts 
formerly adapted for the well-being of this and many other spociea 
no longer tenable by them ; and from the great antipathy to this 
bird eshibited by every land-owner and game-keeper, it is now be- 
coming acarce in this country ; but in Holland and other low coun- 
tries of Europe, Africa, India, and China it still holds its own. The 
plumage of the yearling and adult birds differs so greatly that I have 
been induced to give two plates in illustration of these peculiar 
phases in their history, 

ii'2. CiBCos UYANKca Vol. I. PI. XXVr. 

Hek-Habbjeh. 

Formerly much more numerous than at present, the all-deatroying 
hand of man being directed towards its extermination ; but it still 
exists in its usual numbers in Scotland, where, Mr. Eobert Gray 
states, it is very common " on all the islands of the Outer Hebrides 
. group, and also throughout the inner islands, Skye, SfuU, Islay, Jura, 
&c., where it is known by the Gaelic name of Clavthan hiclt, signify- 
ing monae-hawk," and adds that he baa " seen twelve or fourteen 
HpecimenainonodayonBenbeculaandNorthUist, where its hunting- 
grounda are of a similar nature." 

The following note on the nesting of thia species, from the pen of 
the Duke of Argyll, will be found of interest. Writing to me reapeot- 
ing some ncats of two or three species of Fahonidm observed by him 
at Inverary early in June 1808, hia Grace 8ays;^"The Harrier's 
nest is on the face of a steep bank covered with long heather, and fall- 
ing into a Btreoni of considerable size. The nest itself is placed on a 
little bare ahelf or ledge of Uphagnwm moaa, and with none of the 
heather bending over or concealing it ; but the nature of the ground 
is such that it is not visible from the opposite bank of the stream ; 
and on ita own side the face is so steep that it would not be seen 
unless one were to come a few feet above it ; but t« birds flying 
ever, the neat must be a conspiououa object. It contained sis eggR, 
pure white, but with a slightly bluish tinge, which, 1 am told, is 



icn fit^t laid. The nasi was oompoaed of dried twigs and 
stalis of heather as a ioiindatioa, and vory nicely lined with etrow, 
composed of dried 'eprits' (or a tiud of rush) and one or two biia 
of dried fom. The etraws were nicely laid and bent round, so as Ui 
take the shape of the nest. The bulk of the whole wau small ; but 
the cnp was decided though shallow. 

"The hen roKe from the nest when we came nearly opposite to her, 
about 1 50 yards off. She wae a fine large Ringtail, and soared high 
over the hills. The eggs were all just chipped by the approaching 
extrusion of the young. I took one of the eggs, to see the develop- 
ment of the chick ; it was quite naked, but the bill perfectly formed. 
The keeper tells ma that the whole sis eggs were laid twenty-seven 
days ago ; therefore it most take about thirty days to hatoh them." 

33. CiBcrra ciHBHASCKsa Vol. I. PI. XX.Vn. 

Aen-coLoiTBEs Hakoieb. 



Although I have called this specica by the above appellation, it is 
far better known to British ornithologists by the trivial name of 
Montagu's Harrier. The wings of this bird are long and carved ; 
and its large fan-shaped tail, crossed by numerous cheatnut-coloured 
bars, must render it very conspicuouB during flight. Judging from 
the result of my own. obsorvntions, I should say that this is the 
commonest of the Harriers, and that it is certainly the one moat 
universally dispersed over our islands. Its breeding-places have 
been found more frequently in Cornwall and other southern and 
western counties than elsewhere. So widely does this bird range 
that it is to bo found in most of the ceiintrieB between Europe and 

I have mentioned that reptiles form uo inconsiderable portioa of 
the food of the Harriers, and in confirmation I may quote the fol- 
lowing passage from a letter addressed to me by my friend Mr. 
Gatcombe, on the 3rd of May, 1872 :— " A few days since, I had a 
fine old male Montagu's Harrier brought to me- It was killed on 
Bortmoor ; and from its crop and stomach I took uo less than/ou)'te«n 
lizards, of two kinds, all nearly pcrfeut, and each full Ginchee long." 



FamUy STRIGIC.^. 

In round numbers there are about 200 diileront species of Owla 
distributed over the surface of the globe, only twelve of which wer* 
known to linnajus, by whom they were included in one genus, Strix. 
The entire group are now divided into two great divisions, Noeturni 
and Diurni, and these again iato minor subfamilies, genera, and 
subgenera, just as the ornithologist may please to consider them. In 
England there are ten species, belonging to as many gonora. As might 
bo supposed, so largo a family of birds vary in size from that of a 
small Eagle to that of a Sparrow. 8o extensively are they distribu- 
ted over tile world, that it is almost only in the arctic and antarctic 



41 

legioHB that they are not found. . They are fewest in New Zealand 
and Polynesia, and are perhaps more abundant in AuBtralia than 
elaowhere, not less thun six species of true Striae iahabiting that 
country, besides others pertaining to different genera, all of which 
find a ready meaus of subsiateuiCe in the many small anomalous 
qufldmpedfl of that anomalous aeetioa of the earth's surface. The 
excess in the numbers of the Whit* or Bam Owls as we coll ouf i 
bird, doubtleaa keep a wholesome check upon the undue Lncre 
of the small animals alluded to. How strange (is it not ?) that th« ' 
neighbouring country of New Zealand should be destitute of su 
maramab and of White OwIb ! But tbia is not the place to ent«r 
into a disquisition on the subject; let ua proceed to an enumeration, 
of the Owls of our own country, 

34. Stbix fiammea Vol. I. PI. XXVIH. 

Barh-Owl. 

A strictly nooturnal species, living principally upon niioc, insects, 
and reptiles. Distributed over the three kingdoms and Europe gene- 
rally. The slight damage attributed to this bird is far over-balanced 
by the good it effects in the destruction of obnoxious animaJe. 

Genus SnufnrM. 

35. STRRrUM AlCCO Vol. I. PI. XXIX. 

Tawny ob Beowb Owt. 

Distributed over England and Scotland, but extremely rare in 
Ireland, if, indeed, it ever occurs there. lives on mice, rats, moles, 
and other small quadrupeds ; the edges of ponds, too, are fre- 
quently examined for any fish that may expose themselves, which it 
readily seizes. The less its general cTiaract«r is examined the better 
for its reputation ; for, truth to tell, it is a stealthy thief, and com- 
mits great depredation among young game, robs the keeper's pens, 
and does not disdain a chicken ; in fact, in prowling habits it is not 
surpassed by any other species. It is a bird bnt seldom seen either 
by day or night ; and were it not for it« merry hoot, uttered in the 
stillness of the evening, its presence and whereabouts would not bo 
easily detected. It doubtless destroys rate, weasels, and young rab- 
bit* in abundance ; and this is about all the good it can be said to 
effect. Besides onr islands, the other parts of Europe are constantly 
frequented by this bird ; but for any further particulars respecting 
it and its habits I must refer the reader to my account of the species 
accompanying the plate. 

Genus Bono. 

The birds of this genus are but few in number ; and of thcso only 

ono favours Britain with its presence j but that one is the finest of 



36. BvBO KAXnniB Vol. I. PL XXX. 

Easlb Owl. 

This truly magnificent Owl, which ia not Burpassed in size or 
beauty by any member of ita family, is a native of Horway, Sweden^ 
Buasia, Germany, tho Italian States, Greece, and Siberia, but not 
India (where its place is occupied by the 3ubo hengaleneis), nor 
America (ia which it Jb represented by the Bubo virginiantU). It 
sometimes cornea to Engluad : and it is to bo regretted that its viaita 
arc not more frequent ; for so fine a bird must be an omanaent to any 
country. 

The learned are at variance as to whether thia apccies or a littl« 
unpretending Ailieni was ono of Minerva'a favourite birds ; both 
have always inhabited the country around Athens. I must leave 
it to those who take an interest in classic lore to settle thia point 
to their own satisfaetion. 



The membere of thia section of the Owls inhabit both the Old 
and the New World, but are not very numerous in species. Their 
fiery eyes and long cat-like ears render them conspicuoua objects, 
whetlier seen amidst their native woods or as mounted apeoimeiu 



Lo>-G-] 



Vol. I. PI. xxxr. 



dOwl. 



A constant resident, frequently deposits its eggs in the deserted 
neata of Crows and other birds, and is partial to pine trees. Aa its 
brilliantly coloured eyes indicate, it often flies in tho daytime. 
Feeds upon mice, small birds, and such other food as is commonly 
eaten by Owls, 

" The Long-eared Owl," says Mr. Stevenson, " ia another instance 
of the changes which have taken place in a few yeai-s from local 
causes in the habits of some of our feathered visitants. Wliilat 
drainage and the plough are fast driving the Harriers and other 
fen-breeders from their accustomed haunts, the rapid -uncrease in 
our fir plantations, especially near the coast, affords such induce- 
ments to this species to remain and breed with xm that the autumn 
Tisitant of a few years since, only known to stay through the eum- 
jner occasionally, may now be more properly termed a numerom 
resident, receiving additions to its numbers in autumn." 

Genua Brachtotus. 

Of this form but few species are known. They mostly fly near 
the ground, but will often mount high in the air. The action 
of their winga appeara to be of a heavy flapping character, due pro- 
bably to the rounded form of those organs. 



38. Beachtotcs PALCaiBis Vol. I. PI. XXXII. 

Shoei-eared Owr,. 

This ia both a resident and a migratory apeciea ; for, although it 
breeds in many parts of the British Islands, particularly in Scotland, 
great numbers arriTS in autumn, at the same time that the Woodcock 
appears ; and bonce it is known in some of our counties by the name 
of the Woodcock- Owl. FuU partieuIajB will be found in tho pages 
of letterpress opposite the plate. 

Inhabits the moorlands and not tbo woods, hvcs upon small qua- 
drupeds and the young of the Grouse and other birda frequenting 
similar districts. In Norway it feeds upon lemming ; it doubtless 
eats lizards also ; and inseeta probably form part of its diet. Mr. 
Robert Gray states that in the west of Scotland he has seen this bird 
" hawking for prey in dull weather at midday over turnip-fields, 
looking probably for field-mice, which in the autumn months became 
rather numerous in some places. This Owl, indeed, may be looked 
upon as a useful friend to the farmer in the localities it frequents." 

Genus Scops, 

Sovcral members of this genua inhabit the northern portions of 
the Old World ; and others are found in the New. They are gene- 
rally very prettily ornamented ; and their bright yellow eyes, oon- 
HpicuouB ear-tufts, and the harmoniously blended grey and brown 
moth-like markings of their plumage render them objects of especial 
interest. 

3fl. Scors zoRCi Vol. I. PI. XXXIII. 

Scops Owl. 

As is the caae with many other species of birds, it ia difficult to 
define what is the proper home of this beautiful little Owl ; but we 
may with certainty state that it is common in France and all the 
southern states of Europe. Although it may oceaaionally breed in 
England (and Mr. Harting has enumerated twenty instances of ita 
occurrence), it can only be regarded as one of our chance visitors. 

Mr. Robert Gray remarks : — -" It is a somewhat curious feature 
in the history of the Scops Eared Owl that it lives wholly upon in- 
Becte. It is therefore, in temperate countries, strictly migratoiy in 
it« habits ; and iu France, whore it ia not uncommon, it is said to 
oome and go vrith the Swallow." 

40. Scors ABio. 
Mottled Owl. 

A native of North America and Canada, which it is necessary 
to notice because it is said to have been, twice kiUcd in this country ; 
but, as Mr, Halting remarks, " its occurrence in England must be 
considered doubtful." 

"This small North -American species," says Mr. Stevenson, "was 



L 



first included amongst the accidental Tiaifauils to this country by til* 
lat« Mr, Tarrell in the third edition of hia ' Britisli Birds,' in whicti 
■wOl he, found the notice of a specimen shot in Ihc neighbourhood of 
Leeda in 1852, of which a %ure and description were pven in 
the ' Naturalist ' for the eame year (p, 1(>9). Mr. Guroey informa 
me that some years back he purchased frtaa the late Mr. TfanrteS 
an adult specimen of this rare Owl, said to have been killed near 
Yarmouth, but till then supposed to be only a European Scops OwL 
This bii'd was unfortunately destroyed after it came into Mr. Gnr- 
ney's possession." 

Genus Nyctba, 

Of this form the single Bpedes known is excliisirely an inhabitant 
of the high northern regions of both the Old and the New World, 

41. Nyctea otvea Vol. I. PI. XXXIV. 

Snowr Owl. 

I have always regarded this bird as an accidental visitor to 
England, Scotland, and Ireland ; but Mr. J, H. Dunn informs me 
that forty-five years ago it bred every year on the hills about four 
miles from Htromuess, and Mr. Uobert Gray says it may almost be 
regarded ae a regular spring visitant to the Hebrides. Its great 
and powerful clawa indicate that quadrupeds of considerable bulk 
are within the compass of its des^ctive powers ; and hence the 
hare, the lemming, white grouse, and the ptarmigan have but little 
, chance of escape when once enclosed within the grasp of its talons. 
Its proper home is the icebound re^ons of the north ; in Lapland it. 
follows the lemmings in their migration southwards, 

" So little has been published in England," says Professor Newton, 
when exhibiting some rare eggs at a meeting of the Zoological So- 
ciety (Dec. 10,1801), "respecting the Snowy Owl's manner of nidi* 
fication that I hold myself excused for presenting the information I 

have been able to collect on the subject According to Herr 

Wallengren, ProfesHor Lilljeborg, on June 3rd, 1843, found on tha 
DovreQeld a nost of this bird containing seven eggs, placed oD a little 
shelf on the top of a bare mountain far from the forest and easy of 
access. Professor Nilsson mentions, on the authority of Herr A, G. 
Nordvi, that the Lapps in East Finmark assert that the Snowy Old 
lays from eight to t«u eggs, in a little depression on the bare ground- 
on the high mountains. These accounts were in every way oomiba- 
rated by the information obtained by Mr. John Wollcy during his 
long sojourn in Lapland. He several times met with persona who 
had found nests of thb Owl, and states that he was told the old birds 
sometimes attack persons that approach their nesta. . . . They seem 
to breed commonly in the districts explored by him only when the 
lemmings are unusually abundant. From the 16th to the 24th o^ 
May is supposed to be the time when they usually breed ; and ini 
1R80 a Lapp, who was unfortunately not one of his colleotora, fouiuL 
a nest with six eggs, which, imstead of preserving, he ate. 



" Hany opeoImenB, anid to bo eggs of this bird, have lately been 
received by European oologiets, fbe majority of which aro from the 
miBfiionaries in Labrador. One of those I now exhibit I obtained 
from Herr Moschler. Ho received it, with several others, in 1860, 
from the Okkak, one of the four stations maintained on the coast by 
the United Brethren. He ban had in all more than two dozen from 
that quarter. The Esquimaux find and bring them to the mission- 
ariea ; and the aeconnts thoy give tally exactly with those I have 
just quoted from other sources. The bird always breeds on the 
ground in bare places, and often lays a considerable number of egga." 



Genus Sttenia. 

Hitherto the birds of this form inhabiting Northern Europe and 
the northern parts of Amfrica have been regarded as identical, in 
which case the genus would consist of a single species ; but, at a 
recent meeting of the Zoological Society, MesBrs. Sharpe and Dresser 
have endeavoured to show that tho American bird is different from 
the European, 

42. StTBuii snuBBBA Vol. I. PI, XXXV. 

Hawk Owl, 

Six or seven instances of the occurrence of the Hawk Owl in 



The only member of this genus known to have been found in 
Xngland is the Nyetale Tmgmalmi, of Northern Europe and North 
America, 

43. NvCTAtB TBHGMAiin Vol, I, PI, XXXVI. 

Teno malm's Owl, 
Although Mr. Harting enumerates twenty instances of the occnr- 
rence of t-hi" bird in various parte of onr islands, it must still bo re- 

firded as a rare and uncertain visitor. Its range extends over 
urope and Northern Asia, as far south as Nepaul ; and if, as Mr. 
EUiot believes, the species known as N. Ricliardsoni be identical 
yiitk it, then the northern and arctic portions of North America 
mnst be included within the circuit of its domain. 

Genua Athene. 
This section of the Owls comprises many species, distributed over 
Europe, India, and other portions of the Old Worid. By modem 
■ystematiflts these have been subdivided into no less than fifteen 
mibgenera, the particulars of which need not be detailed here, inas- 
much as we have only to deal with the single species which visita 
luntry. 



L 



44. Athbhb mctda Vol. I. Plate XXXVII. 

LimB Owl. 
A very comiuon bird in France and other parts of Europe. 
England it may have and doubtless has occurred more frequently than I 
has been supposed ; but it is a bird which cannot be easily detected, f 
however diligently it may be searched for. Numerous instances d J 
its occurrence are on record r and besides the neat mentioned by 
Huiit aa having been taken at no great distance from Norwich, an- 
other is reported to have been met with in the New Forest, and the | 
young taken and reared at Harrow. 



ORDER INSESSORES. 
Family QAPRIMULGID^. 

Members of this great * family of nocturnal birds frequent the 
wanner portions of almost every part of the globe, and are nearly 
as varied in structure as they aje numerous in species. In the New 
World the cave-loving Sfeafoi'w'R and the long-tailed Hi/dropsala 
are among the most conspicuous of the forms inhabiting that sectLon 
of the world, as the great Podargi and the eared LiincornitJies are of 
the Old. Their food mainly consists of insects and their larvte, with 
occasionally fruits and berries. 

Genus GAPRnnrxans. 



The birds of this restricted form are confined to the Oid World, over 
the greater portion of which they range. Two arc found in Grreat 
Britain. 

45. Caprimttlous BirR0Pi;D8 Vol. 11. PI. I. 

Nightjar or Goatsttckeb. 
The Nigh^ar, Goatsucker, or Chum-Owl, by which trivial namea 
this species ia known, is a true migrant, and is very genernlly dis- 



persed < 
parture i 



the British Islands from its arrival in May until its de- 
September. 



46. CAPBiMrLotra sirFicotLia Vol. 11. PL II. 

Rbd-nbcxed Goatscckbb, 

An inhabitant of Spain, North Africa, and Palestine, which has 
once appeared in our islands. 



Family CYPSELID^. 

The Swifta have been divided into two subfamilies, Cyjis^ina and 
CluEturiiut. They are found both in the Now and the" Old World. 
Two of the Oyupgelina occur in liritiiin ; and one of the Chtrtiirinai 
having in a single instance been kiUed here, it beromea neccasftry 
to include it in Uie list of oi *"- 



Vol. IT. PI. III. 



Genua Ctpsbltjs. 

47. ClPaKElTS APTI8 

SWIPT. 

Arrives in May and departs southward in August or tho early part 
of September, and is therefore a true migrant. 

48. CrpsBLirs melba Vol. II. PL IV. 

Alpine Swnr. 

A common migrant on the continent of Europe, particularly in iti 
central and Bouthem parts ; it also inhabita Africa and India, and is 
an accidental visitor to Britain. 



Genus CEsnraA. 

The members of this genus are generally dispersed over America ; 
nor are they absent from Asia, Africa, or Australia. They have been 
divided into several subgenera: that of ^imjidopushaa been assigned 
to the single species which in a solitary instance has found its way 
to Britain ; but I retain it under the older term by which it is more 
generally known. 

49. Caa;TTntA ciTroAcuiA. 
Spine-tailed Swift. 
The solitary example above alluded to was " shot about 9 p,m. on 
the 8th of July, 1846, by a farmer's son, near Colchester, in Essex : 
he saw it first in the evening of the 6th. Ho tells me it occasionally 
flew tn a great height, was principally engaged in hawking for flics 
over a small wood and neighbouring trees ; being only wounded, it 
cried very much as it fell, and, when he took it up, clung so tightly 
to some clover as to draw some stalks fr^m the ground" (T. Catch- 
pool,jun., in the 'Zoologist' for 1846, p. 1493). 

If Indian, Chinese, and Australian examples are identical, as I 
believe they are, then the range of the present species is wide indeed ; 
but possessing, as it docs, vast wing-powers, there is no reason why 
it should not pass and rcpaaa from one country to another with the 
greatest ease. Distance being mere child's play to a bird so lai^ely en- 
dowed with the means of flight, its accidental occurrence in England 
I need not excite surprise. 





Family HIR.UND1NID.E. 

The momberB of this great family of air-froquenl „ 
almost univerBftlly dispersed, ao much bo at least that Swallows and 
Martins arc known to the inhabitants of most parts of the globe, 
except those of Now Zealand and Polynesia, where, strange to say, 
none are to be found. 

More than a hundred species are enumerated in our lists, in which. 
large mimbor many variations of form exist, each charact'Orized by 
iwme peculiarity in habits, mode of life, kind of food they eat, con- 
atraetion of nest, or mode of nidiiication. Three migratory species, 
each pertaining to a distinct genus, make our islands a temporary 
resting-place during the months of summer. 

GeniiB HntirifDO. 
The spodes of this form, of which onr common Swallov is th< 
typo, inhabit Europe, India, China, and North America. Th<7' 
are distinguished for the elegance of tbeir structure and the 
and buoyancy of their evolutions. 

50. HmcNDo BusTic* Vol. II. PI, V. 

Common Swallow, 
Comment upon this familiar species is quite unnecessary , 
all know it arrives in spring, aod, after bracketing its cup-shaped 
HMt in OUT chimnoya and outhonaes, and rearing its progeny upoft 
the insects it captures in their neighbourhood, departs again in 
autumn to more southern climes, carrying with it our Ood-speed 
for its welfare until it returns to receive our renewed greeting. 

Genus Ckelidon, 

Other Rpeeies besides the clothed- tajsed one frequenting our 
island are known ; they are mostly fVom India, China, nud Japan. 

61. Chelidon itkbica Vol. II. PI. VI. 

HoUBE-MiHlTN. 

This pretty fairy-like bird arrives about the middle of April, 
constructs a aemiglobular nest of mud under the eaves of our dwell- 
ings, and, after rearing its proKeny, departs again in the autumn 
to the wanner country of Af^'ioa — where the sun still vivifies an 
abundance of insect life, and thus furnishes a plentiful supply of 
food to these insoctivorous birds. 

Genus Cottle. 

A very distinct little group are the Sand-Martins, whose habits 
are peculiar and very different from those of the Swallow or the 
House-M'artin. They inhabit the Old and the New Worlds. 



62. COTYLE BIPAHIA Vol. H. PI, VII. 

8Ain>-M4KTIN. 

Am^-eB early in spring, aasembles in flocks, breeds in colonies, 
mukos a slight nest in a hole in n sandbank, and, after rearing 
its young, departs aonth on the first chilly days of August or Sep- 
tember, 

53, Cottle bipaeia VoL II. PL Yin. 

Sakd-Mabmk (young) 

aa Been, on the bank of the Thames, in the month of August, priof J 

to departure south. ' 

Genus Prosne. 

54, Proohb euepueea. 
Purple Uardn, 

A strictly American form, of which four or fivo examples are 
said to have been killed in our islands — one near Dublin, one in 
Torkshire, and two at Kingsbury in Middlesex. 

GonuB ? 

65. BICOLOB. 

White-bellied Swallow. 

Another American form, for which a generic title has not yet 

been proposed. It is said that a specimen Las been killed near 

Derby; vide Wolley, in the 'Zoologist' for 1853, p, 3806, and 

Newton in ' Proceedings of the Zoolc^cal Society' for 1860, p. 131. 

Family MEEOPID^. 

The membore of this family are among the moat ornamental of 
tte Insessorial birds, and are as elegant in form as they are beautiful 
in colour. Europe, Aeia, Africa, and Australia are the countries 
is which one or other of the not very numerous species are found. 
As the tbinneas of their plumage and the slightness of their form 
would indicate, they appear to be sensitive to cold ; and most of 
item are resident in the tropical or -warmer portions of the coun- 
tries mentioned, though one species, the Uerops apxaster, is very 
eommon in Spain. Insects of the various orders constitute their 
ehief food. The species have been divided into several genera. 

Genus Meeops, 
The species inhabiting Europe is tho type of this form. 

fi6. MSKOPS APIASTBR Vol. II. PI. IX. 

£bK- EATER. 

Although there are many instances of the occurrence of this bird 
Britain, it can only be regarded as an accidental visitor; and 





BD uncertain are its visite, that years may elapse without mn ex- 
ample being seen. It ia commrm, and breeds, in Spain, where it 
deposita its eggs in hoies of sandbanks. 



Family ALCEDINID^. 

The distribution of the KingGehere may be said to be almost 
universal; but of the 125 species described, few are to be foimd 
in the New World, the family being very feebly represented in 
Amerioa. The various species have been much aubdiTided and 
received many generic appellations, their structure being as diverao 
as their modes of life and the kinds of food upon which they 
subsist. Water ia by no meana essential to the existence of many 
of them, especially tboae which dwell amidst the scoriieof voloanoes 
and on hot and parched plains, — liiarda and insects being the food 
of those affecting the former situations, while the huge Daceloe (tre- 
queuting the latter) eat snakes, email quadrupeds, and insects, fish 
appears to bo the chief food of the members of the rostricted genus 
Alcedo, of which our well-known Kingfisher is the typo. 



Genus Alcedo. 



Vol. II. PL X. 



Kisi 

A. resident species ; common in all the central portion o{ England, 
more scarce in Scotland, and not a common bird in Ireland. Feeds 
on fish, crustaceans, and insect-s. It is the only species which 
habitually lives in Britain and on the continent of Europe, beyond 
which its range is not very far extended. Other species of this form 
inhabit India, some of its islands, and Africa. 



Genus Cebtle. 
A gronp of Kingfishers, of about a doeen or fifteen species. 

58. Cbrtle alcyon. 

This American bird has been twice killed in Ireland— once in 
the county of Meath in October 1845, and again in the county of 
Wicklow in November of the same year (Thompson, ' Natural History 
of Ireland, Birds,' vol. i. p. 373), These TrauaalJantic birds must 
be regarded as interlopers, since they have no just claims to a place 
in our fauna. 



Family CORACIID^. 

No member of this family has yet been seen in the Now World ; 
and the Old may claim the form aa one of its finest ornitholc^cal 



produotioas. There are evoTi fewer apeoies of this family than of 
the Meropida ; and those few are all warm-coEntry birds. They are 
abundaot in Africa; one or two ep«cies frequent India; others 
the islands of the Eastern archipelago. Up to this time no true 
HoUer has been found in Australia, where it is repreaentod by the 
members of the genns Euryatomva. 

Genus Cosacias. 

69. CoEiciAS eAKRCLA Vol. n. PI. XI. 

Roller. 

Although the KoUer is a regular summer visitant to the centre J 
of Germany and other parts of the Continent, its occurrences ia 
England huve been few and far between ; here, therefore, it can only 
be regarded as an accidental yisitor. It has nevertheless been ocoa- 
eionally killed in the three kingdoms. 



) known ; they 



Vol. II. PI. XII. 



Famay UPUPID^. 

Varied indeed are the opinions entertained by ornithologists re- 
specting the situation this family of birds should occupy in our 
■yBtems. For my own port, I have always eonBidered its proper place 
to be near to, if not associated with, the Hombills {Bviwrotidoi) ; 
hence this is perhaps not the situation in which it would appear in 
.an arratigemetit of the birds of the world : but it is the best I can 
assign to it in a limited fanna like that of the British Islands. 

Genua TJprrpA. 

Abont five apecicB of this very singular form [ 
inhabit Europe, Asia, Africa, and Madagascar. 

80. Upttta bpops 

Hoopoe. 
An accidental visitor to England, where it generally arrives in 
May ; and its doom is seated as soon as it makes its appearance ; so 
■ttractive a creature immediately arresting attention, it soon falls 
B victim to the gunner ; and its mounted skin is found in Uie houses 
«f the men of Kent and other southern counties. 



Family LANIID^. 

The Shrikes, comprising many species, are very generally diatri- 
buted over the surface of the globe, particularly in the Old World. 
Some of the typical members inhabit Britain and North Ameiica, 
■ad are also found in Asia and Africa, but not is. the islands of the 
Sastem archipelago, nor in Australia. They are all, to a certain 



estent, destroyers of other birds ; but their chief food conaista (4 
insects, their larvee, and molliuka. In. dlspoeitioa they are crad, 
spitting their victims on thorns or between the interstices of Qw 
brunches of trees ; for what precise purpose is not well uaderstood. 

Genua Lahtttb. 

61. LiNiirs ExcuBiTOK Vol. n. PI. Xin. 

Great Grey Shrike. 

An accidental visitor, which may occasionally, but does not 
ally breed in this country. Its proper home ia the Qonfdnent of 
Europe, beyond the boundary of which it becomes more and mom 

62. Lawhtb Kmoa Vol. II. PI. XIV. 

EosE-BREAMTED Shrike. 

1, Turkey, and Greece, which has been killed two 



Genus EiraiocTONra. 

The members of this genus differ considerably from the preceding, 
inasmuch as, instead of the sexes being alike, the}' vary in colour and 
markings. Species of this form are fomid in Europe, A^a, and 

63. EsireocToyua colluhio Vol. II. PI. XV. 

BUTCHBBBIED. 



64. Embboctoncs EijFca ........ Vol. U. PI, XVL 

"Wooh-Chat. 

Although this bird has been killed in England several times, it 
can only be regarded as an accidental visitor. It is said to hsTtt 
bred in this country ; but, for myself, I haye never seen an authenti-. 
cated egg which had been taken herein. 



FamUy MUSCICAPID^. 

The various members of this family are very generally dispersed 
over the conntries of the Old World. 

When I published my Plates of the two following species, the 
late Mr. George R. Gray had recently indicated, in his ' Catalogue of 
British Birds,' that the old Museirapa atrieapiUa pertained to the 
genus Mtueieapa, and the M. grieola to the genus Butalie ; bat id 



hiB more reeent ' Haud-list ' he inakee the latter the type of Mitsd- 
rapa, and places the former under Sundevall'a aubgenus Hedymtla, 

Genua Mtjhcicapa, 

65. MuBcicAPA ATEioiPiiLA Vol. II. PI. XVII. 

Pied Plycatcher, 

A well-known migrant to Britain, chiefly frequenting the northern 
portion of England, where it breeds. It is rarely met with iii 
Scotland, and never in Ireland. For an interesting note by Mr. 
Steveufion on a singular immigration of this species on the Suffolk 
coast in September 1869, see the 'Zoologist ' for that year, p. 1492. 

66. MuBciCAPA C0LLARI8 Vol. ir. PI. XVni. 

WnirE-coLLABED Fltcatcheb. 
This Bpeeiea, which has onoe been killed in England, is a native of 
Eastern Europe. 



67. BBTAtlS OBIBOLA 

Spotteb Fltcatceek. 
ArriveH late in the spring, spreads 
■ after breeding returns to whence it cam 



Vol. II. PI. XIX. 



r the British Islands, and 
le northern port of Africa. 



Genus Ei 

The members of this genus, which are but few in number, frequent 
Eastern Europe, India, and China. They are extremely delicate in 
atmcture ; and it is marvellous how bo frail a bird as the E. parva 
could have crossed the Channel, and thus laid claim to a place in the 
avifaana of Great Britain. 

68. Ebtthhostehka parta Vol. II. PI. XX. 

Bes-bbbasied Flicatcheb. 

For the particulars respecting the capture of three examples of this 
bird, I refer my readers to my account of the species opposite the 
Plate ; but I may here mention that all were taken in Coniwall, 
and that ti.ey can only be r^arded as accidental visitors. 

69. Tiekostltia oLrvACBA. 
Bed -eyed Flycatcher. 

In Mr. Hapting's ' Handbook of British Birds ' it is stated that 
two examples of this purely American species were taken by a bird- 
catcher at Chellaston, near Derby, in May 1859, the particulars of 
which will be found in Sir Oswald Mosley's ■ Natural History of 
■Tutbury,' page 385. 



Three or four Bpecies of this very aingular and beautiful famil 
are all that are knonn. They chiefly inhabit the temperate nm 
northern rcgionB i>f both the Old and Kew Worlds, their summar 
reeidences often bordering the arctic circle, whence some of them 
migrate south at the cold season, but only for a ehort period. 



GeaDS Ahfrlis. 



Vol. n. PI. XXI 



70. AuPEua 

Waxes Chatterer. 
A native of Norway, Finland, and Russia. Is only an accidental 
visitor to England ; and when it does favour us with its presence, 
it is mostly in the winter, especially if that season happens to be 
severe. A distinct species is found in Japan ; and the A. 
as wo all know, frequents America. 



Family SITTID^. 

Taking our Common Nuthatch as a typical example, and omitting 
the members of the allied subgenera CalJUitta, Dendrophila, and' 
ffypher-j>es, there exist about a dozen species of this family, som 
not all, possessing the peculiarity of being able to run up and 
down the holcH of trees with equal facility. They frequent the 
temperate portions of Europe, Asia, and America. 



Vol. II. PI. xxn. 



71. SiTTA C^IA 

Nuthatch. 

This species is not, as has been supposed, entirely confined to 
Britain ; for it is also found in some of the Danish islands and else- 
where. With us it is stationary and common all over England, 
bnt is somewhat rare in Cornwall, very scarce in Scotland, and never 
found in Ireland, 



Family PARIDiE. 

Here than a hundred species of Tits have been already named; 
and there are doubtless many more yet to be described. The coun- 
tries frequented by these tree-loving birds are Europe, Asia, Japan, 
the Philippines, Java, and Sumatra. Africa, also, from north to 
south, contains its fidr quota ; nor are they absent from America, 
irhich country they are principally found in its northern re- 
gions. Structurally they present mudi variety; and in consequenoB 
the entire group has been divided into many genera. In the BndA 



56 

lalauds, exclasive of the so-called Bearded Tit, which belonge to an 
entirely different family, we bave eix speciea, wbicb ooostitute the 
typical examples of almost as many genera. I have, however, only 
adopted a portion of them, keeping four in the genua Panis, one in 
Facile, and one in MecMura. The chief food of the Tita consists of 
insects and their larvie, with occasionally the addition of fruit. 
They are mostly pert and lively birds, assuming many varied poai- 
tions while aearehing for food among the leafy hranchesof trees and 
shruha. 

Genus Pabub. 

72. Pawfb kajok Vol. TI. PI. XXIII. 

Gkbat Tit, 

Resident and common over the three kingdoms. Breeds in April 
and May. Youthful hirds have their tieeks stained with yellow, 
while in the adult the sides of the face are white. 

Generally distributed over Central Europe. 

73. Pakus c^autEDB VoL H. PI. XXIV. 

BtOBTrr. 

A beautiful saucy little bird, which, being found here at all times, 
is ft resident species. The cheeks, which are white in the adult, arc 
tinged with yellow in the young. As common in the central por- 
tion of Europe as with us. 

74. Pabub atee . . " Yol. 11. Pl. XXV. 

Coal Tit. 
A common resident in every county ; gives preference to forests of 
beech and oak. A cheerful, merry little bird, of which the young 
are more beautifully coloured than the adult, the sides of the fiice 
and a portion of the breast being washed with yellow during tlie 
first sis weeks of their existence. The continental binfe, particu- 
larly those found in Belgium, are considered distinct by Messrs. 
Bharpe and Dresser. 



75. Pares c 

Chested Tit. 
A resident Bpeciea in Scotland ; breeds i 
Ih said to have been killed in England, and, 
Bliike-Kaox, twice in Ireland, 



Vol. H. PI. XXVI. 



the woods near Elgin, 
on the authority of Mr, 



Genus PfflciLE. 



76. PffldLK 

Maesh-Tit. 
A resident species ; sci 
still more so in Ireland. 



Yol. II. PI. xxvn. 



rce in Scotland, except in the Lothians, and 
Cheek-mark of the young uniform with 



tho other parte of the body, except the sides of the neek— whii-h are 
whit«, and not yellow. Prequents, but not esclumTely, plantalioiis, 
copaea, and low humid situations. 



GenuH MECiHTtiliA. 



Vol. II. PI. xxvm. 



77. SIkctbtcha. c 

LosQ-iAiLED Tit. 

This wandering and interestinp bird is a trae British resident 
It has been separated by Mr. Blyth flrom the White-headed species 
of Scandinavia, under the Bpecificappellatioa of .rosea ; itmtiBt, how- 
ever, be remarked that some of our examples have white beads ; and 
therefore I do not aver that they are, or are not, distinct. Other 
species of this form are found on the Bosphorus, on the Himalayas, 
and in China. 

Mr. J. H. Gumey, juu., has communicated to me the following 
interesting fact in connexion with this bird r — " A Mr. Noble once 
noticed at Blaekwall, near Darlington, an object on a fir tree which 
he took for a Pheasant; but on firing at it he found that, instead of 
a Pheasant, it was n great ball of Long-tfoled Tits. He told me that 
he did not kUl less than a dozen. My father informs me that the 
South-African CoUea roost congregated in bunches;" and I have 
witnessed precisely the same in the Arlamva gordidva in Tasmania. 



78. Mecistpka 



Vol. II. PI. XXIX. 



Vol. II. PI. XXX. 



LosG-TiiLEn Tit (young), 

Family ? 

OenuB Oaj^uofhelus. 

79- CiLAlfOPHIttrB BIAKMICUa 

BEiBDED Tit. 

A resident species in the marshes and along the sides of the 
rivers of our eastern counties ; but the drainage of tho former and 
the clearance of the sedges of the latter have greatly diminished the 
numbers of this lovely Hltle bird. Still it is common with ns, and 
even more so in Holland and other fiuviatile districts of Central 
Europe. 

This bird is by no means a genuine Tit, although it ia commonly 
60 called, and is placed here for the want of a more natural situa- 
tion. 



Family ORIOLID^. 

Agroupof Old- World birds, the members of which a . .. ._.___^ 
coloured, yeDow and black being the prevailing tints, partiaalarly 



J 



of that Beetion of them typified hy the Oriolva galbula. The coun- 
triea they frequent are either hot or temperate, Africa, India, China, 
the Philippines, Java, Sumatra, and some of the ifllands of the 
Eaatem Archipelago being tenanted by one or other of the spedes. 



Uei 



H Oriolttb. 



Vol. II. PI. xxxr. 



80. Obiolub q 

Golden Oriole. 
Although common in many parts of Europe during the hreediug- 
Beuson, with us it ia a rare hird, and must be included among our 
sccideutal spring visitants. In the SciUy Islands five or six are often 
seen together ; but after remaining there quit« unmolested for two 
or three weeks, they invariably betake themselves to the mainland, 
■where persecution and death await them. The following note from 
my friend Mr. Eodd, respecting an unuHual irruption of this speciea, 
will he read with interest ; it was received on the 24th of April, 
1870. " I am sure you will be interested in hearing that a large 
immigration of Gulden Orioles has taken place in the immediate 
neighbourhood of Penzance and at the Scilly Isles. They are mostly 
in superb adult plumage. I'ivo were killed out of eight, and a fine 
male and a fomalo besides, at Trevethoe, near Haylo. A flock of 
forty or fifty was risen in a thick plantation on the grounds after- 
wards." Surely such beautiful birds, when they do arrive in this 
country, should receive protection instead of the destruction which 
now invariably awaita them. 



Family TURDID^. 

A large number of medium-sized Jnseesorial birds are included in 
this family — Thrushes, Blackbirds, Fieldfares, Redwings, &c. Their 
omnivorous appetite leads them to eat insects and their larvce, snails, 
■worms, fruits, and berries. Some are constantly resident, others are 
migratory; some spend the summer, others the winter ■with us. 



Genus Tniinus. 

The Thnishes and the Blaekbirde are seemingly very different ; 
and were it not for numerous intervening forms, the generic characters 
of TurdiM and Memla would Be more easily defined. The greater 
part inhabit the temperate portion of the earth, bat are not found 
in Anstrulia or Now Zealand. 



81. TlJRDTIS MUSICUS 



Vol, n. PI. XXXII. 



Very generally distributed, and constantly residing and breeding 
lere, as it does also in most parts of the European continent. 



m 



. TuKDUsVisciyoKirs , 

MlSSEL-TSBUBH. 



Vol. II. PI. XXXIII. 



Strictl; Blationary. Common in Europe ; generallj breeds in all 
the middle counties of England. It also ishabita Scotland, wbere 
it is annually becoming more and more numerous. Sings early and 
breeds in Hay. The following note from Profeasor Owen, dated 
Sheen Lodge, Richmond Park, 28th April, 1872, respectiiig the 
pugaacious propensities of this species, cannot fail to be of in- 
t«rest ;— " You know that the Missel-Thrush boldly attacks Mag- 
pies and other birds larger than itself; but you may not be aware 
that it bullies man biniBelf. I was transplanting, about sun- 
rise this morning, and was startled by a loud menacing noise 
above me, and on rising and looking up saw a Misael-TliruBh 
darting from branch to branch, chattering loudest as it passed over 
and near to my head ; and then it made a dash at me, sweeping 
close past my face with a chattering scream, and, alighting on a 
branch about six yards off, turned round and dashed back again, so 
that I ' ducked ' to save my eyes ; and these sweeping attacks were 
repeated four or five times before (out of a desire not to disturb a 
bird whose wild winter-notes I like) I moved off. I went a round- 
about way to a garden-seat about twenty yards from the scene of 
the first difiturbance, and shortly after beard the same chattering, 
clattering, bullying note, and, having my binocular, made out my 
friend (or enemy) darting about the boughs of an old acacia over- 
head, and continuing his remonstrances against my vicinity, to which 
I again yielded," 

83. TuRnca lliaccb Vol. II. PI. XXXIV. 

Bed WIN a. 
A winter visitant, arriving with the Fieldfare in autumn, 8nd 
departing northward in the spring. Summers in Iceland, Norway, 
Sweden, and other portions of the old continent bordering the arctie 



84. TuRmrs mlakib 



Vol. n. PL XXXV. 



A winter visitant only. Breeds in Norway and many other parte 
of the Old World. Comee to us about the same time as the Wood- 
cock — that is, in October, the periodwhen the Bing-OuEel departs. 



Vol. ir. H. XXXTl. 



85. TpRBCi 
£ucK- 

A native of Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. Has been once 
killed in England, as will be seen on reference to the Turdine sec- 
tion of the work, where the eircnmstance of its capture near Brighton 
is fully detailed. 



59 

GenuB MsBULi. 

86. Mebitla TTJMABn VoL n. PL XXXVH. 

Blackbird. 

A resideot and veiy generally distributed species, both in oar 
islands and on the European continent. 

87. MXB1JI.A TosauAXA YoL n. PL XXXVni. 

finro-OiTZEL. 

A sninmer yisitant^ which frequents rocky aitnations in Wales, the 
northern parts of England, Scotland, &e. Winters in Africa. 

Genus Gbbocihcla. 

A fionn Tery distinet boHi frtHn Merula and Turdutj ai whieh fire, 
six, or BBvesD. spedes, all inhaMtants of the Gld Worid, are known to 
eziBt. They hxve a Tory wide range, some being found in Aria and 
its iwiandR, and others in Australia. Th^ are shy and sohftaiy in 
their habite, aHeo frequenting rocky and sembby siioatioiis in the 
midst of forests. 

88. OMwocacLL aitxea YoL £L PL XXXIX. 

Whitk's Thrush. 

A native of the Altai, the Himalajraa, and China. Sing^ indi- 
Tiduals occasional^ migprate westwaitl to the eontineat ci Europe 
and to England, wherein about ten or twelye examples haye been 
killed, the partknlais rejecting sereral of which wIH be found in 
the lettequreos q^osite the Plate oi the ^edes. 

Genus Cichlosbbts. 

An €Mieni fonn, the type of which is the wdl-known SOieriaa 
TImiBh. 

89. ClCHLOSKRTB SIBISICUS YoL IL PL 



(hnte an accidental Tiator, only a ang^ instaiiee of its bong killed 
here being on lecotd. 

Runfly PYCNONOTID^ 

The nembffs of this fiunily are nearly allied to the great gioi^ 
of Honey-eatefs (Md^phoffida) of Australia. Many species inhahtt 
Africa and Tw<ii<i 

Genus Ptcvorotus. 

90. PrcavoxoTcs cAFsms. 
Gotd-vented Thrush. 
A natzre ai Spain and part of Africa ; once killed in Ixcin 



the particulars of which see Thompson's 'Birds' of that couutry, 
and Tarrell's ' History of British Birds,' vol. i. p. 224 : " erroneously 
identified by those authors," says Mr, Hartiug, " with P. auri 
of Vieillot." 



FamOy CINCLID^. 



Eurt^O^^^I 



Many opinions arc es,ta,nt among oruitbologiets respecting the 
natural position of this very singular group of birds : one places them 
near Eniiurus, GraJlina, ite. ; another fancies they are allied to 
Troglodytes ; and a third, to the Thrushes. Of the eleven or twelve 
known spociea, seven or eight inhabit the northern re^ona of 
the Old World; a single, or at the utmost two, frequent the same 
regions of the New ; and two are found among the cataracts and 
rocky Btreams of the Andean ranges. But it is in Europe and Asia 
that Water- Ouzels most abound, the watercourses of the great 
Himalaya Mountains and their continuations being especially ire- 
quented by them. Europe is tenanted by three, one of which in- 
habits the British Islands, and a second comes to them occastonBlly 
from Norway. 

91. ClKCLTO AttTTATICDS Vol. U. PL XLI 

Water- Ouzel or Dippeh, 
A resident in Britain, frequenting the turbulent waters and mill- 
streams of its hilly districts. 

92. ClKCLTIS MELABOQAaiBE Vol. II. PI. XLII, 

Black -BELLIED Watbb-Ottzel, 

A native of Norway, Sweden, and probably other parts of Northern 

Europe. In England it has been several times kiUed in Norfolk, 

Bufiblk, and lincolnshire ; but these must he regarded as accidental 

occurrences. ^^H 

Fanrily SAXICOLIN^. ^| 

A family of insectivorous birds, comprising many Old World forms 
inhabiting Europe, Asia, and Africa. They vnry in Biie from a 
Thrush to a Wheafear or a Stone-Chat. 

Genua Pbtrocobstphks. 

A genus of rock-loving birds common to the continent of Europe, 
North Africa, India, China, and the Philippine Islands. 

93. Pbtrocossyphus oyanus Vol. II. PI. XLIU. 

Blue Uock-Tilrush. 

Has been once killed in Ireland, the particulars respecting which 



tmd the conntrieB the bird inhabits 'will be gained by reference to 
the letterpress opposite the Plate whereon the apeoiea is figured. 

Genua PEiBocrNCLi. 

This form is scarcely separable (rem Petrocossyphui ; the members 
of both are distributed over nearly the same parta of the world. 

94. PETROCtnoiA sAiATiLia Vol. H. PI. XLIV. 

Rock-Thbobh. 

A purely accidental visitor to Britain, only one, or at the utmost 
two, examples having been seen therein. The true home of the 
species ia Southern and Eastern Europe, Palestine, and North Africa. 

tfenuB Saxxcola. 

The Whcatears, as the members of this genus are frequently called, 
are Old-World birds, inhabiting Europe, Africa, India, and China. 
They are alert in their actions, and dwell almost exdusiyely in rooky 
and sterile places where little water occurs, that element not appa- 
rently being necessary to their existence. 

95. SaXICOLA ffiNANTHE Vol. II. PI. XLY. 

Wheatbab. 

An early spring visitant from Africa. Breeds in various parta 
of the three kingdoms, after which, both old and young retire to 
winter in warmer climates; some individuals proceed to high 
northern latitudes — Greenland, and Arctic America. 

Genus Pratiscola. 

An 014- World form, the members of which are more arboreal 
than the Wbeateare, frequently perching on shrubs, bushes, and 
grasaee. They are distributed over Europe, Africa, India, and 

96. Praiibcola EinjErfiA Vol. II. PI. XLVI. 

WaiH-CHir. 
Strictly a migrant from the south, arriving at the end of April, 
and, after breeding, departing again to whence it came ; while here, 
it is very generally distributed. 

97. PBITIMCOLA RTTBICOLA Vol. 11. PI. XLVII. 

8tobe-Chat or Fttezb-Chat. 
A resident bird, inhabiting commons and heath-covered districts ; 
breeds and remains in its chosen situation from year's end to year's 



end. It u also found on the continent of Europe, and probably in 
Bome parte of Asia.* 

Genns ERnHACtrs, 

Of this genus there are three Bpecie*, the well-known Robin {E. 
rubecula) of Europe, and the E. ahahuje and E. komadoH of Japan. 

98. Ebtthatos rubecdla Vol. 11. PL XLVIII. 

EOBIS. 

This familiar donizea of our gardens, shrubberies, and woodlands 
is a constant resident with us, is disporaed over the three king- 
doms, and ia a general favonrtte. It is also found on the continent 
of Europe, in North Africa, and the Islands of Madeira and Teneriffe, 
in which latter island I have myself shot examples. 

Genns Ctanecttla. 

Two or three very differently marked hirdi of this form Bxist in 
Europe, Africa, Indm, and Chinit. By some writers they are con- 
sidered to be one and the same spedea ; by others each has been re- 
garded as distinct. In habits and disposition the Blnethroats are 
peculiar, they exhibit none of the bold daring of the Wheatear and the 
Hobin ; neither do they sit on a twig and show their breasts like the 
Whin- and Stone-Ghats ; on the contrary they skulk among bushes 
and dense herbage of hill-sides, or among the grasses in a meadow, 
concealing rather than showing their beautiful colouring, as if con- 
BciouB that its exposure would be adverse to their woll-being. 

09. CrAUBCULA BPEcicA Vol, II. PI. XUX. 

Red -THROATED Blubbkeabt. 
A lovely little bird, which lives in eastern Europe and probably 
in Africa. In the summer it it to be seen on the Dovrefleld, in the 
winter in the annny Bonth. It sometimes pays England a visit, and 
hence is included in our avifauna, but its occurrence must be re- 
garded as purely accidental. 

100. CVASECTJLA LF.UCOCrANA Vol. II. PI. L. 

White- THROATED BtnEBRBASi. 
A native of France and Southern Europe, accidental in England. 



Hedfltarts, ae the members of this genus are trivially called, not 
only inhabit Europe, but are abundant in India and China. 



iOl. RUTICILLA PHtFNICORA Vol. U. PI. LI. 

Besstabt. 
Arrivea from the south in April, frequents our gardens, breeda in 
our apple-trees, and renders its visits agreeable by its pleasing song, 
the sprightlinesB of ite itctions, and tbe beauty of its plumage. It 
also risite the aouthem and central parts of Europe generally. 

102. RimciLLA TiTHTs VoL n. PL LII. 

£lack Kesstart. 

A native of Central Europe and the eountries to the southward 
and eastward thereof, pays England almost annually a visit during 
the months of autumn, when other migrants have gone south to 
winter in A&ica ; still it must be regarded as an accidental visitor 
only. With us it frequents rocky situations ; but on the Continent 
it takes up its abode in gardens, just as the Redstart does here. 

Qenua Aedon, Boi^. 
, The members of this genns are inhabitants of the Old World, 
where their head quarters appear to be Eastern Europe and North- 
ern Africa, 

103. Aboob eAticTODEs Vol. 11. PI. LIII, 

RuFOCs Skdqe War blub, 

Spain, Greece, Asia Minor, and North Africa are among the 
countries frequented by this species, which, having been only twice 
killed in England, must be enumerated among its rarest visitants. 

" The Rufous Sedge Warbler is evidently only a summer migrant 
in the north of Algeria. On my return from the Mzob country in 
May, I saw scores where there had not previously been one, and 
generally away from water. It has a curious habit of raising its 
tail : it is hardly ever seen in any other position. Our common 
British Nightingale has the same habit in a leas degree ; but with 
the Rufous Sedge Warbler it appears to be natural to keep it raised ; 
whether the bird is in motion or at rest, the tail is only depressed at 
intervals." — J. H. GrRSEr, jun. 

Family ACCENTORIN^. 

A group of Old- World birds, some species of which inhabit Europe 
and Asia, from the British Islands to Kamtai^hatka and Japan. 
They have been subdivided into three genera. Accentor, Spermolegut, 
and Tharrhaleue, the types of the first and third of which are natives 
of Britain, namely, A. alpiwis and T, modutaria. I have, however, 
kept them both in the genus Acwntor. 

Genus Accbntob. 

104. AccBjiTos AMMTis Vol. n. PI. LIV. 



Alpiite Accektor. 
Common in Switaerland and other rocky countries of Southern and 



Eaatem Europe. An accidontal vieitant to England, wbei 
been killed or seen about a dozen timea. 

105. AcoBHTOB MODoiAKis Yol. II. PI. LV. 

Hedgk-Aocbntob or Hedoe-Sfi 

Resident in the three kingdoms ; common in gardens. A tame, 

pleasing, and harmless little bird. Lives on insects. Inhabits most 

parte of Europe and Halta, where I htive shot examples. 



PamUy SYLVIID^. 

Comprises a very large number of species, which are inhabitanta 
of the older known portion of the globe. About fifteen are enume- 
rated in the British avifauna, as belonging to [the genera Siflvia, 
Curruca, Laaeinia, MdisophSus, PhyUoiineusU, Fieedula, ffegvltu, 
Eeguloides, &u. 

Genus Ltiscinia. 

A very ■well-defined genus, comprising two speeies, both of whieh 
are summer birds in Central Europe. One of them, our well-known 
Nightingale, comes to us in spring, and retires again in autumn. It 
has been ascertained that both species winter in more southern 
climes ; but we really know little respecting the extent of their range 
in that direction. 

100. LnscraiA Philomela Vol. II. PI. LVI, 

NiOBTJBGiLE, 

A summer migrant to the southern and central parts of England, 
but not to Scotland or Ireland, A full account of this charming 
bird will be found opposite the Plate on which it is represented. 

Genus Sylvia. 

In the present work both the Whitethroata have been regarded 
as typical examples of the genua Si/lvia. These and some other 
speeiea abound in Europe during tho months of summer; others, 
again, are spread over Northern AMca, India, and China. Their 
food consists of insects and berries. 

107. SvLYiA onraBEA Vol. TI. PI. LVII. 

Whitetheoat. 



When spring assumes her most cheery aspect, our hedges put 
forth their leafy verdure, and the goose-grass ramifies among the 
herbage of the ditches, the saucy Whitethroat makes its appearance, 
and, after spending the summer and rearing its brood, departs again 
in autumn to winter in warmer climes. It is, therefore, a true sum- 



r migrant, whieli visits all tlis threo kiaglomii, but i. 
rc« in some parts of Scotland. 



Vol. II. PI. lATII. 



108. SfLvii c 

Lessee WsicBTHEOiT. 
A aummer migrant from the south, which arrives rather lator than 
the preceding spGciea, hetakea itself to gardens and woodlands, sings 
its garralous peculiar song while searching for aphides and other 
insects among tho leaves of the cherry- and other trees of the garden 
or forest, is spread over the contra! portion of England, is rare in 
Cornwall and Scotland, and has not been seen in Ireland. 

Gonna Heiizophilcs, 

Mr. G. K. Gray onumeratoa, in his recently published ' Hand-list 
of Birds,' three species of this gonna ; hut I feel assured that our 
well-known Dartford Warbler must stand as its sole representative. 

109. Melizophilits pkovinciahs Yol. II. PI. LIX. 

DiKTFORB WaRBLEK, 

A stationary but rery local species in the south of England, rai-o 
in the midland and northern counties, unknown in Scotland and 
Ireland. Evinces a preference for heathy lands, particularly those 
clothing the greensand; hcnoc it is abundant in some parts of 
Sun*)*, Sussex, find Hampshire ; while on the Contiflent, where this 
kind of formation does not exist, it is either scarce or entirely absent. 
la extremely shy and recIuso-ia-itaJiabitB. Breeds ia May. 

Are yon aware," says Mr, Gatcombe, in a letter dated Dee. 20, 
1868, " that the Dartford Warbler is tolerably common in the furze- 
brakes near Lyme Begis ? A few days since I had a very nice spo- 
oimen sent me in the jfesA from that place ; and the sender informed 

that ho had lately killed five, but tlie one forwarded was the 
on/i/ n"e he could find among the long gorse. What a great pity 
that four of these interesting birds have been killed and lost ! " 



Gor 



S CrERUCA. 



Tho members of tlm geuns possess considerable vocal powers, are 
laore shy or distrustful in their habits tlian tho Whitcthroata, und 
are less sprightly in their manners. Europe, North Africa, Asia 
Minor, Western India, and China are frequented by the membera of 
tills genua, two of which visit England during tho months of si 



.110. CtlBBUCA A 

Blackcap. 

Winters in North Afric 



Vol. II. PI. LX. 



md migrates to us in April in consider- 
able numbers, which, after- spending the summer and breeding here, 
^iring their way to whence they came. Common all over England, 



As a Bougster it almost rivtds thv 



rare in Sootlimc! and in Ireland. 
Nightingale. 

111. Odbkcca OHPSHA ToL n. PL LXI», 

OKrHEAN "Wabbleb. 

Ono Bpecimen at leasthasliccii killed in Britain, fot the porticiilMt, 
of which vide the letterprosa opposite the plato on which it is fignredc; 

112. CcKBrci noBTENSia ToLH. PL LXIL 

AailBM- W-* HBLBK , 

An unobtrasivo and plainly coloured bird ; has a lond gaimlcniff 
Bong ; arrives in April, -when the nettles and other herbage are snffi- 
fioiitly deiiBo and Uie leaves of the trees Bufficiently forward to screen 
it from sight. Common in England and the south of St-otland, bat 
seems to be more rare in the nortii of that country ; and in IrelaHi^, 
according to Thomiison, it is extremely ao. 



Genus Tboglodtixs. 



In the Old World the northern regions are those that are princi- 
pally inhabited by the members of thiB genus ; in the New they range' 
from the northern to nearly the southern extremity of the greoti 
continent of America. They arc pert, lively little birds, which difiee 
from the true Si/lvim in many particulars, rendering jt very difficuft 
to assign them a place afflniUvcly in any of the proposed systems. 

113. TROOLODlTTEa BUBOr^TJS Vol. II, PL LAIlL, 

Common WREtr, 

As implied in its specific appellation, this bird is a native <n 
Europe, over which it is very generally dispersed and strictly sta- 
tionary, inasmuch as it keeps in the vicinity of its breeding-plaoA* 
from year's end to year's end. 



Family CEKTHIIDJi;. 
The members of this singular bark-loving family, which a 



ibnt 



n number, frequent the temperate regions of both the Old and' 
the New World. Pour species inhabit the great Himalaya monnw 
tains ; and of these some visit the plains of India, and extend thni 
range eaatwui-d to Japan. In America there are two, which oM 
found in all parts of that country from the United States to Heiico 

Genus Cbethia. 

4. CERraiA pam:iuris Vol. II. PI- LXIV, 

Treu-cheetkr. 
A resident species, generally distributod over the three Idngdomi^ 
■ted braving with apparent impunity the coldest of our winters. 



it 

GonUS pKYltOPSETaTE. 

The trivial narae of Leaf-Warblera haa of tale years been applied 
to the members of tbia genus, a term wbich I regret not having 
employed in the body of the work. These delicate birds arc so 
generally dispersed over the northern and temperate countries of the 
Old World that they may bo regarded as nnivorsally diffused. They 
are all more or less migratory, moving backward and forward in 
accordance with the course o£ the Bun. Three species arrive in 
Britain oariy in the spring. 

115. pHYnopyEusiE TROCHiLcs Vol, n. PI. LXT. 

"Willow-Wren. 

. Arrives from the south about the middle of April, and diligently 
oommenoea to search for insects among the newly expanded leaves 
of the willow and other trees, and, ofter making its dome-shaped, 
grassy, feather-lined nest on the {ground and rearing its young, 
retires to whence it came upon the earliest access of cold weather. 
When here it is generally dispersed over the three kingdoms. 

116. PnYLLortTETrsTE injvx Vol. II. PI. LXVI. 

Chtptchaft, 

One of the earliest spring migrants from the sunny south, many 
individuals frequently appearing in ITarch. Solitary instances are 
on record of its having been seen here during (he winter months j 
and aa I Found it at the same season at Malta, it is evidently a more 
hardy bird than the Willow- Wren, from which it differs in the 
character of its song and in the places selected for the site of its 
dome-shaped nest, which is frequently built in a buRh. It is very 
generally dispersed, but somewhat less numerous in Seolland than in 
England. 

117. PHtLLOPHEtSTE BtBILATEIS Vol. II. PI. LXVII. 

Wood-Wbeit. 
Although I have kept Ihis bird in the present genus, it has just 
claims to generic distinction, its much longer wings, peculiar song, 
and brighter colouring not being quite accordant with either the 
Willow- Wren or the Chiffchaff—and, indeed, has had that of Sibi- 
latriw assigned to it by Professor Kaup. With us it is a true sum- 
mer visitant, arriving later than the two birds above mentioned, ita 
tremulous sibilant note not being usually heard until May. Although 
commonly dispersed over England and Scotland, it is rare in Ireland. 
Breeds on the ground, generally making a nest of grasses only. 
SepBttB in autumn, and winters in Africa. 

Genua K£Girxon>Ks. 

ConpricH a lerira of Kmall eastern birds allied to PhpHf^neusle 

and Seffvlnt. The species which has paid England occasional visits 



1^ 



ja an inbabitant of Europe and Novtbcm India, wbere otliera of tbe 
form axe also found. 

118. SE0TfL0IDE3 8CPEE0III08IJS .... Vol. II, 11. LXVIIL 
Yellow-bbowed 'Wabbleb. 

Tbc particulars of tbe capture of tbia species in England, as re- 
corded by Mr. Harting, are : — 

" One, Hartley Point, Norlbumberlund : Hancock, Ann. and Mag. 
Nat. Hist. vol. ii. p. 310; Blytb, Zoologist, 1863, p. 8329; Yarrell, 
Hist, of Brit. Birds, vol. i. p. 380. 

"One, Charlton Kings, near Cbeltenbam.lltb Oct. 1807: Gould, 
Ibis, 1869, p. 128." _ 

Sab. Nortbem Asia, India, Nepaul, China, Japan, and Formosa, 
Has occurred accidentally in S^cdcu, in Heligoland, and Berlin, and 
near Ley den. 

119, EsGUI-OrDES C.tLENDCLA, 

Euby-erowncd Wren. 

All that is known respecting tbo occurrence of this Bpe(^«e in our 
islands ia compriaed in tbft follo*ing note from Mr. E. Gray's ' Birds 
of Western Scotland:' — 

" In the aumroer of 1852, Di. Dewar, of Glasgow, shot n specimen 
of thia North- American species in itenmore Wood, on tbe banks o^ 
Locb Lomond. The bird was exhibited at a Meeting of tbo Natural- 
Hidtory Society of Glasgow on the 27th of April, 1858, and identi- 
fied by me. Dr. Dewar stated that be bad found it in company 'with 
a lai^e flock of Goldoresta, and that ho had shot a dozen birds al- 
together before he recognized the differences which thia one preaentod. 
Dr. Bree, in his work on the birds of Europe, states that the Rev. 
H. B. Triatram has a Ituby-crowned Kinglet in his possession, which 
was given him in the flesh, and which was killed by a Durijam pit- 
man, iu 1852, in Brancepeth woods ; fn>iu this it would seem that a 
second example has occurred in this countiy-. 

Gculis Bkoulus, 
The Golden -crested Wrens or Kinglets are a charming group of 
Small birds inhabiting tbo northern regions of tbo Old and New 
Worlds. Ill their actions and in their mode of nidification they re- 
mind us of the Parldte, or Tits ; but no one baa yet, 1 believe, removed 
them from among tho true Sylvian birds, nor shall I do so in tbfl 
present work, England is tenanted by two species, which, with one 
or two others, are all that are known in tho Old World ; in the- 
new portion of tho globe there may be as many more. In disposition 
they arc as tame as they are sprightly and pleasing in their actions. 
They suspend a neat hammock- si laped nest beneath the branchoa 
of fir or other trees. Their e^s are numerous ; and the progeny sOon 
tlc.quiro tho ptumago of the adult. 



69 
120. Rbgultt? cri^tatijs ....... , . . Vol. II. PI. LXIX,. 

GOLDEN-CEESTED "WkBN. 

A native of Europe, and doubtless other countries to the south 
and eastward. With us it is a resident species, and frequents aliko 
the three kingdoms. 

121. ReOITLUS IGNICAPELLUS Vol. II. PI. LXX. 

Fire-crested Wren. 

Very generally dispersed over the continent of Europe and North 
Africa; it is purely an accidental visitant to Britain. 



• . ■ * . . . , . 

Genus Ficedula. 

. A form which appears to be intermediate between the WiUow- 
y^Tona and Sedge-birds. 

X22, FICBDT7J4. HrpoLAis ....,,. Vol. II. PL LXXI. 

Ybllow-browbd Warbler. 

. An accidental visitor to England and Ireland ; common in Holland 
and other parts of Europe and'Nbrth Africa, from which latter 
country it migrates north in spring, filling the dwarf woods and 
qeier-beds of France and Holland with its melodious voice, 



Family CALAMOPYTIDJi. 

Ornithologists will, I am sure, agree with me in considering that 
the Sedge-birds constitute a very distinct family. The numerous 
species, which have been divided into many genera, are very 
generally ^tributed over the older-known portion of the earth's 
Qurface, ' They are semiaquatic in their habits ; the greater number 
frequent both large and small beds of sedges and other herbage 
growing in the vicinity of water, and feed upon insects. They are 
well represented in the British Islands, over which the species 
are generally distributed. In the present work these birds have 
been classed under the generic titles of AcrocepTialtis, Calamoherjoe^ 
Calamodytay Lusdniopsisy and Locvstella, 



Genus Acrocephalus, 

r 

', The members of this genus are the.largest birds of the family ; 
and one.or other pf them form part of the avifaunao of Europe, Asia, 
Africa, and Australia, 



123. AcROORPHAtUS TlTfiDOIDKa . . . . . Vol. U. I'l. LXXII. 

Thrush Wabslee. 
Besides inhabiting tho contiaont of Europe and the neighbouriag 
coantrics, the Tlirush Warbler finda its way to England, aa will be 
aeeB on reference to the lotterpr-ess opposite the Plato on which the 
speoiea is represented. It can only be regarded aa an accidental 
visitor. 

Genus Caiamoiebepb, 
What has been eaid respecting the distribution of tho members 
of the lust genus is equally deacriptive of those of tho present one. 

124. Caiamohbbpe abdkdisacea .... Vol. II. PI. LXXIU. 
Kebd-Waeblek. 

A true migrant, arriving late in April. NDsta in the lilac and 
other trees of the shrubberies, and in moat of tho gardens of the 
central portions of England ; its nest ia also frequently found among 
reeds and bushes overhaogiug water. Besides our own coantry, Om 
species frequents Central Europe and Northern Africa. 

125. CilAMOHEBPK PiUJSIBIS Vol. II. PI. LXXIY.. 

MABSn-WABELBR. 

Supposed to inhabit many parts of England, and to have been 
often confounded with the preceding ; siiid to arriyo at the same 
time and to bo more exclusively aquatic in its habits. Is considered 
always to have lighter- coloured legs and to present other, minor dif- 
fere aces, which maybe more easily seen by consulting the respective 
Plates than by tho most minute description. Should it ultimately 
prove that tho O. palnstek is found here, it must be regarded ae a 
regular summer visitant. 

Genus CALAMorTTA. 
The members of this genus are smaller in size than the Cidamo- 
Tierjxx, and are less uniform in the colouring of their plumage. Tho 
situations afieeted by both are identical, reeds and aquatic herba^ 
being apparently necessary to their existence; at all oventB it ia in 
such situations that they pour forth their querulous songs both by 
day and by night. The CalannxiifKe are very generoUy ^stributed 
over tho temperate portions of Europe, AfHoa, and Asia. 

126. Calamodyta PHEiCMina Vol. II. PI. LXXV. 

SEnoE-WARBLER, or Chat. 
A bird of the summer, which arrives early in May and spreads 
itself over England and Ireland, but not, according to Sir William 
Jordino and Macgillivray, visiting Scotiand. After breeding, it de- 
parts again to Morocco or some other part of Africa. 



71 

127. Calamodtta aquatica Vol II. PI. LXXVI. 

Aquatic Waebleb. 

Somewhat rare in Central and Southern Europe. Has been kiUed 
two or three times in England, where it must be regarded merely as 
an accidental visitor. 

Genus Lxtsohstopsis. 

According to Mr. Gray's * Hand-list of Birds/ two generic titles 
have been proposed by Bonaparte for the single known species of 
this Ibrm, yiz. Pseudoluiscinia and Lusdniopsis ; the latter term has 
Tdogd, employed in the present work. 

128. Lrscrwopsis lxtscikioides .... VoL 11. PI. LXXVII. 
Sati's Wabbleb. 

Has many times been lolled in England, where, howeyer> it must 
be considered a rare visitant^ and principally to the eastern counties. 

Genus Looustella. 

About five species of this genus are known ; of these one or other 
frequent Central and Southern Europe, Asia, Siberia^ and China. 

129. locustblla avicula ..'... vol. 11. pi. lxxviii. 

Gbasshopfeb Wabbleb. 

A yearly summer visitant to England, some parts of Scotland, and 
Iteland, in all of which countries it breeds, and afterwards stealthily 
departs southwards in autumn. 



Family MOTACILLIDiE. 



The Motadllidte are among the most graceful of bii-ds, iind, from 
their familiarity, tnmciiesa of disposition, and the sprightlinesa of 
their actions, are great fayoiiriteB with every one who lives in the 
country. They have been judiciously separated into two distinct 
gronpB, the Pied and the Yellow Wagtails, the generic term Motaeillti 
being retained for the former, and that of Bvdyies for tie latter. 
There is also another form, to which the term Cahbales has been 
applied ; of this only odo or two species have yet been discovered ; of 
the other gCDora many aretnown. All, both Pied and Tellow, are 
fitrictly confined to the Old Worldj more particularly its northern 
portions. 

Genua MoTACirn, 

Two species of this form inhabit Britain — one of which is resident, 
the other migratory ; in India tliere are three or four ; and in Chins 
and Japan wo meet with as many more, Their natural province is 
tlio ground ; but they readily perch on the branches of trees. 

130. MoiACixxi Tabeiclli Vol. IH. PI. 1. 

Pied "WiGrAiL. 

A resident species in the three kingdoms, breeds freely in the 
neighbourhood of dwellings, and is one of the foster-parents of tlie 
young Cuckoo. 

131. MOTAOILLA ALBA Vol. III. PI. II. 

WniTE "Waqtatl. 

A common migrant on the continent of Europe, but only a raro 
straggler in Britaiaj in various parts of which it has been seen end 
taken. 

Genus Btjdttes, 

The Tellow ■Wagtails, qb already slated, frequent the same coun- 
tries as the i'ied, and arc cqnallj numerous in species. <.)f the Ihi'ee 
pertaining to the British avifauna, one is a constant spring visitor, 
the other two occur hut seldom. 

132. Btoytes n<Ti Vol. ni. PI. UI. 

VeLIOW WAOTAIt. 

Arrives in April, sprcada over oiu' fichlK and meadows, breeds, and 
returns to Africa for (be winter. Generally distributed oyer the three 
kingdoms, 



Vol. III. PI. IV. 
nilli UB tliat it can 
. Vol. III. Pi. T- 



73 

133. BUDYTES PIAYA 

GiiET-HEADED Wagtail. 
A common bird on tho Continent, but e. 
-only bo regarded aa an accidental visitor. 

134, BuDTTEs cnfPJiEOCApnj.A . . . 
ORKr-CArPBD Wabtail. 

A bird ■wliich passes from AiricB, by way of Malta, through Cen.- 
trni Europe to breed on the Dovrefjcld and other northern parts of 
this quarter of the {-lobe. Has been killed only once or twice in 
England, and consequently ia only an accidental visitor. 

Genus CAionATEs. 

This peculiar form of Wagtail is more elegant in appearance than 
the members of either of the two preceding genera; it« legs are 
shorter, and its tail longer ; in colour it oloBely aseimilatea to the 
picmhorB of the genua Bwlytee. While the MotaciSte are circum- 
Bcribed in the range of their area, the Calobales sulphttrea is found 
at one Bcason or another in nearly every portion of the Old World, 
Australia and New Zealand esccpted, 

J35, Calobaies siiLPHTiBEA (Summei" plumage). Vol. III. PI. VI. 
{Winter plumage). Vol. III. PI. VII. 
Gbbx "Waotail. 
A resident in the three kingdoms. Evinces a preference for moun- 
tainous districts. Breeds in May, constructing, like the others, b 
cup-shaped nest, and laying four or five eggs. 



Family ANTHID-'E. 
Pn-iTS. 

We have here a group of birds which are moro generally spread 
than the Wagtails, inasmuch as they nre diffused over both diTisions 
!|Bf the globe, but which arc far less numerous in the older portion 
^an the now. Like most other large groups they have been divided 
^d subdivided into ninny genera ; those frequenting England I have 
retained under the old genus Anlhus, and commence with one of the 
Snest known species. 

136. AjiTBTTs KraiAiini Vol. III. PI. VIII. 

Kiohabb'b PiriT. 

An accidental visitant to the British Islands, where it ia generally 
Iwen in winter and spring. The other countries frequented by it are 
Continental Europe, India, China, and in fact the whole of the tein- 
potnte regions of the Old World, 



137. AurHtra cimtestbis Vol. III. PI. IX. 

Tawjiy Tip it. 

Common iu the champagne parts of France and other portioHB of 
Central Europe. Haa been killed ia England, and may therefore ba 
regarded as forming part of our avifauna ; hvit its \isits must be con- 
sidered purely aeoidcatal. 

138. Anthtts oBsCTjRra . ■ . , Vol. HI. PI, S. 

EooK-PiPii. 

A stationary Bpocies, froquonting the ahorea and roeky parts of 
Britain— sparsely in Norfolk, but plcnfifully in Western ScoUand 
and all the western islands, including the Outer Hebrides, Monach 
Isles, Haakur Itocks, and St. Kildu— keeping strictly to ttio sea- 
margin (_if. Graif). 

139. Airrairs spinoleti.i Vol. IIL PL XL 

ViKous Pirrr. 

A bird of Franco and the Bouthom and eastern parts of Europe. 
Although it has heou killed on our coast many times, it must bfl 
considered an uncertain and accidental visitor. 

140. Anthcs LvooviciiKxrs, 

See the remarks respecting this species in my account of the 
Vinous Pipit (Anihus iipinofetfti). 

141. Anihts cBitvENos Vol, HI. ri. XII. 

EBB-tanoATBD PirjT. 

Mr, Harting has recorded, in the ' Field ' for the 26th of August 
1871, the occurrence of two examples of this bird in our islands — 
ono at Unat in Shetland on the 4th of May 1854 (now in the 
collection of Mr. Bond), and another in September of the same year 
at Freshwater in the Isle of "Wight, 

142. Asmoa pkatkhsis Vol. III. PI. XIH. 

Meadott-Pipit on Tiilakk. 

A truly resident specicB, breeding in all the moorland counties of 
the three kingdoms, often the foHtor-paient of the young Cuckoo in 
this and the other European countries in which it is found. A largo 
race of Meadow-Pipits arrive on our south coast in spring, and, it ia 
believed, spread themselves over the central and perhaps the noitiiem 
pordone of the country. 

143. Akthuh AitDOBErs Vol. III. PI. XIV, 

Tree-Pipit. 

A summer migrant t« England and Scotland, but "not," sayi 
Thompson, "satisfactorily known as an Irish specicB;" oirivea in 
spring, aud departs in September, 



n- 



Family ALAUDID^. 

The Larka constitute a veiy large faiaily of birds, anJ are perhaps 
less understood thnu imy othi^r group in the whole range of orui^ 
thology. Thoao species wliieh frequent Britain are arranged in the 
genera Alawla, Ckderita, OtocorU, Melttnocorypha, and CatandreUa, 
They are chiefly inhabitants of the Old "World. Of the genus Alaitda, 
under which term all that were known when Linnteua wrote were 
include^, our well-known Sky-Lark ia a. typical oxamplo. In America 
these biida are but feebly roproseutod. 

GonuB AxATTDi. 

144. AiATrm AETEHSia Vol. III. PI. XT. 

3xr-L&&E. 

A strictly resident speoiea in Britain, the nnmbera of which aro 

Seatly inorcosed by arrivals from Scandinavia in autumn, the whole 
rming im.mense tlooks in the winter reason. This species is tisa 
■widely disporsod over Centra! and Southern Europe ; and its range 
nay even extend farther in those directions. In the preoedii^ 
portioa of this introduction I have mentioned tlie great destruction 
of small birds which occasionally takes place from the severity of 
the weaOier, in further confirmation ef which I may here give a 
paeaago from a note received hy me from John St. Aubyn, Esq., of 
Fondecn, in Cornwall, dated January 15, 18(37 ; — " Owing to the 
severity of the cold. Larks and other small birds are beginning to die 
rapidly of starvation, judging from the number my chUdrou pick up." 

145. Alattoa ABBOREi Vol. in. PI. XVI. 

Voob-Labk. 

A cheery little songster, very local in its habitat, breeds in many 
of the English counties ; supposed to migrate from us to the soiith- 
Ward in the winter ; but Mr. Elakc Knox states that it is abundant 
at that season in the county of Bublin, and also that it breeds there. 
Jt is about as numerous in Scotland as it is in England ; and Hr. 
Horticg states it has been found as far north as the Orkney Island*. 

Genus Galeejta. 

146. Gaujiuta citisTATA Vol. ni. PL XVn. 

Cbestbd Labk. 

A bird of France and many other parts of the European continent, 
and even of other more distant countries. Although common on 
the roads between Calais and Boulogne, it seldom crosses the Channel 
to pay Albion's shorea a visit ( hero, indeed, it is so scarce that & 
must bo enumerated among our accidental visitors. 



Geuus OrocoEiB. 

Of this ornamental section of tlio Xarks there arc about tes 
known species, six or seycn inhabiting the Old World, and tliroe 
New. All nre more or less ornamented with small pencilled plnmea 
Bpringiag from above the eye, and have much of their plumage suf- 
fused with yellow and pinky brown. Tlieir head quarterB are 
eastarn Europe, Palestine, Afghanistan, the Altai, and the high- 
lands of Asia generally. 



Vol. ui. Ti. xvm, 



147. OcTocoma 

SnORE-LiBE. 

This bird has appeared here so frequently of lat« that it may 
almost be termed a regulaj winter visitant. Lord Lilford has 
eordod, intho 'Zoologist' for 1852^ an inatanco of its nesting in 
Devonshire , 

GcnuB MEiAKocQEYPHi. 

A little group of thick-billed Larks, comprising five or six species ( 
almost eselusively inhabit the central and eastern regions 

148. MeLANOCOEYPHA CAlAtTBRA Vol. III. PI. XiX. 

CiLANUEi L.I 

A common species in most of the champaign ports of Central and 
Sontheru Europe, but a purely accidental visitor to England, two 
inatancea only of its oMurrcnce here being on record, both in D&. 
vonshire. 

149. MeLAKOCOETPEA LErCOPXEEA ..... Vol, III, PI. XX.* 

■Whttb- 

The native country of this bird is Siberia and the eastern portiona 
of Europe. In a single instance only has it heen kUled in England, 
fpr the particulars of which see the letterpress opposite the plate. 

Genus Calahdeella. 

150. Calasbeeila DBACntUACTii.A .... Vol. III. PI. XXI, 
SnoET-TOED Lark. 

A native of Central and Southern Europe, India, and China. Only 
four or five instances of ita having been killed in England have been 
placed on record ; conseijuently it must bo regarded as purely an 
accidental visitant. 

Family EMBERIZID^. 

The members of this great group of birds extend over Enropo, 
Asia, and Africa, to which sections of the globe they appear to bo 
confined, inasmuch as no tnio Bunting lias yet been discorered ' 



Ataeiica, Australia, New Zealaud, or, I believo, the ialaada of the 
Eastern archipelago. The numerous speoiea of ivhich the family is 
composed are divisible into many gcuera ; and the ten species recog- 
nized as iuhabiting Britaiu have been divided into six or sevcu. 
The food of all, both of those which frequent our islands and of those 
found in other countries, is of a mixed character, seeds of various 
kinds constituting its main portion ; but insects and their larvie are 
largely partaken of, and probably form at first the sole nourishment 
of the young. 

Genus EuBEErzA. 

151. Embemza citrinella Vol. HI. PI, XXII. 

YELLOwnAMMBB Of Tellow Bp.'^tiso. 

Very generally dispersed over the three kingdoms ; breeds and 
rears its young between spring and midsummer, British specimens 
differ considerably in the colouring of their plumage, and are very 
much less in size than eontinental examples. 

152. EitBBUizi ciBLtrs Vol. III. PI. XXUI. 

ClHL BdBTINO, 

A resident, but somewhat local ; breeds in most of our southern 
counties, particularly in chalky districts, and annually as near to 
London as Cookham, in Berkshire ; very scarce in Scotland, and 
never seen in Ireland, 

153. EiiBERizi KisTicA Vol. III. PI. XXIV. 

EiTsTic Bdxtinb. 
The native habitat of tills bird is the eastern part of Kuropc and 
the neighbouring countries. Has been killed naar Brighton, for the 
particulars of which circumstance sec 'The Ibis' for 1869, p, 128, 
and the letterpress facing the figuro iil the present work. 

154. Embebiza rusiLiA ....... Vol. III. PI, XXV. 

Dwaup Busting. 

Inhabits Northern and Eotitcru Europe, Siberia, China, and the 
Himalaya Mountains. Has been ones killed in England, i'i'('«' Ibis,' 
1S65, p. 113, and the accomit opposite the present plate. 

Genua CuimornAGA, 

155. CniTHOPnAOA imiABiA Vol. III. PI. XXVI. 

CoiDION BONTINO. 

A truly British species, which is also found in Central and Southern 
Eurojje, Northern Africa, Asia Minor, and Persia. Breeds in our 
thre^ kingdoms ; is solitary- in its habits, being generaUy seen sitting 




78 

aiuuo on the topmost twig of a hedge-row. The sole representatiTe 
of its genus, or geoero ; for it hnaliad no lees than five generic tenni 
applied to it — Embtriza, Sjiinvs, Chfjichrmn'is, MiUana, and Cri- 
tliopliaja. 

Go HUB Glycispina. 
r Beven apeciea iuhabitbig Kurope, Asia, 

156. Gltcispisa hohiulaka Vol. III. PI. XXVII. 

Oetolan Buntikg. 

A bird which rangea TC17 estenaively over Europe, being common 
from the shores of tho Mediterranean to the DoTrcQrfd in Norway; 
in the latter couutry it breeds in abundance. It in but an accidental 
visitor to Eugkud, has once only, I believe, been killed in Scotland, 
and never in Ireland. 

Genus Eusfiza, 

157. EcspizAMELANOCErnALA .... Vol. ni. PI. XXVni. 

BlACK-ITEADHII EtfMTIKG. 

Common in Eastern Europe, Porsia, and "Western- India. The 
male is a, beautiful showy bird, tho female more plainly dreBsed, as 
will be Been on reference to my plate, which represent* an individual 
of the latter box, Haid to have been killed on Brighton race-oourBc on 
the 3rd of November, 1868. 

-Genus Sohcbsiooia. 

The members of this marsh-loving Boetion of tlie Buntings are 
about three in number, all inhabitants of Europe and the countriw 
to the eastward of it. 

158. ScHCENicoLA ABtJHiruAOEi. .... Vol. III. PI. XXIX. 

ItEEn-BtlNTIlfO. 

A resident and generally distributed species; breeds in the 
Thames aits and in the osier-beds of other rivera. 



Comprises about five speciea of very intereeting mountain-loving 
birds, mostly American, and always in high northern latitudes, the 
species inhabiting Lapland occasionally paying the British Islanda a 

159. CKNTROpnANES LArPOHICA Vol. III. PI, XXX, 

Lapland BiTNTtNe. 

n the elap-nete 



A goniis composed of the Bicglo species known by the trivial names 
of Snow-Cimtiiig and Snowflake. 

160. PLECTBorHAHEs NIVALIS ..... Vol. III. n. XXXI. 
Bmow-Bpittins or Ssowtlajle. 
This very interesting hird ia an autumnal and winter visitant to 
tte British Islanda. Ita snmmer qnnrtcra are the countries near to 
and, not unfreqncntly, within the arctic cirelo. It hreeds in Lapland, 
and pi-obably in suitable aituatioiia in all other countries of a aimilar 
latitude round the globe. 

Genua ZosoTiticniA, 

A purely American form, compriaing about twelve known apedeB, 
one of which has strayed across the Atlantie to the British Islandfl, 

Ifil, ZOMOTWCHIA ALB[C0LLIB. 

'White-throated Sparrow of American authors. 
" A female speoimen of this bird," snya Mr. R. Gray, in his ' Birda 
of Western Scotland,' " was shot near the Broadhill, on Aberdeen 
links, on the 17th of August, 1807." This specimen was snbse- 

ritly sent to Professor Newton for exhibition at the Meeting of 
Zoological Society of London on the 27thJannary, 1870. More 
recently a, second esample, taken neat' Brighton, was exhibited at a 
Meeting of the samo Society by George Dawson Eowley, Esq. 



Family FRINGILLID^. 

The Pinches are a family of birds comprising a larger number of 
members than the Buntings and the Larka, and arc even more widely 
dispersed over the earth's surfaeo than those of any other group. In 
a work limited to the birds of our own islands, it would be out of 

eee to give an enumeration of even the genera into which they 
re been separated ; and I therefore confine my remarks to ench 
forms as are found in Britain. 

Subfamily FRINGILLIN.S. 

Oeuus Passeb. 

He true Sparrows are principally confined to the northern paVta 

of the Old World. Asia is inhabited by several speeiee, and Europe' 

by four or five, two of which frequent the British Islands. 

162. Passer dosiestictts Vol IH. PI. XXXII. 

Common or Housb-Sparkow. 
Distributed generally, but somewhat scarce in the northern partfi 



i 




of Scotland. A bird who30 faults are few in number, and respecting 
which a, sod mistake was made when certain parochial authoritiea 
placed a price upon its head ; for the good it effects in spring by tiiA 
capture of insects far outweigts the value of the few grains of oom 
in a pulpy state which it occasion ally takes. 

ie3. Pabsee MoifTiNua Vol. IH. PI. XXXJII. 

TRKE-SpiRROW. 

A local species, and consequently much less widely difTiised over 
the British Islands than the precediug : not so, however, with regard 
to its general distribution ; for it is as common at Shanghai and othec 
parts of China as it ia in Europe. Both in Scotland and Ireland it 
la local and rare. 

Genua Frinoilla. 

The members of this genus of pretty birds as now restricted are 
but few in number. They oil inhabit the northern and western 
portions of the Old World. England is frequented by two species. 

104. FRUjerLLi ciembs Vol. III. PI. XXXIV. 

Chaffinch. 
A bird of general distributiou over the three kingdoms j but 3fr. 
Augiiatua Smitli tells me that in the Scilly Islands it only appears in 
winter. 

165. Frisqilla MomrFRisGTLLA .... Vol. III. PL XX XY. 

B RAMBLB-FlNCH. 

A true winter visitant ; gregarious. Arrives in autumn, probably 
from Norway and Lapland, where the process of reproduction lias 
been accomplished. 

Genna CARiirELis. 

A limited genus, of which our beautiful GoldSuch !s the typo, and 
whose only associates are the C caniceps of the Himalayas and the 
C. orieiiiaUs of Central India. 

166. Carduelis ELBOAsa Vol. HI. PI. XXXVI. 

Gold Fi sen. 

A resident species, common and almost universally distributed 
over the British Islands, and equally plentiful on the neighbour- 
ing continent. 

Goniis CiiHTsoMiTHia. 

Of this genus one species inhabits the Old World, and some seven 
Or eight ore distributed over America, from California to Chili. 



167. CHRrsoKiTBis sponra Vol. IH. PI. XXXVII. 

SlBKIN. 

As regards this beautiful little bird, Scotland has the advantage 
OTer England ; for it regularly breeds there, while Tith us it is a 
winter visitant; and in Ireland it is only aeen at that season. 

Genus Sekints, 

A small group of about three species, one of which, the Common 
Canary, is the t3T>e. They inhabit Europe, Palestine, Kadeira, and 
the Canary Islands. 

168. Sbeinuh HOBTutiNCs Vol. IH. PI. XXXVUI. 

Seeis Finch. 

Ha^ been several times killed in England. Ur. Harting ename- 
rates ten instances of its occurrence herein, viz. : — five at or near 
Brighton; one in Hampshire; one in Somerset; one in Siisaex; one 
near London ; and one, locality not noted. 

Genus LiecEiuta. 

Four species of this form, to which the generic names of Li/jui-inas, 
CUdorU, and Chlorospisa have been applied, are aU natives of Europe 
and Asia. Japan is tenanted by one, China by another, Persia by a 
third, vfhile Europe is the homo of the type, our well-known Green- 
finch. 

169. LroDKDnjs chlobis ..;... Vol. m. PI. XXXIX. 

Gee8nf:hch. 
A resident species in Britain, over which, says Mr. Harttng " it is 
generally distributed, even to tie Outer Hebrides, where it is found 
in North ITist and Harris and the Orkneys." On the continent of 
Europe it is almost equaUy dispersed : and I have a specimen &om 
Erzeroum, in. Persia ; but I muat mention that, although a fully 
Adult male, it is of smaller size than examples killed in England. 

Genus CoccoTHBArsTKs. 

I believe the bird inhabiting Europe to be the only representative 
4>f its genus ; for I very much question whether the Japan bird iB 
really different. 

170. COCCOTHRATIHTBS TPMABIS Vol. III. PI. XL. 

Hawtiuch. 
This bird, which has become more plentiful of late yeors, is a per- 
manent resident in England. In >^otland it is more scarce, and is 
probably confined to its southern and eastern provinces. In Ireload 
it is only occasionally found. 



Siibfanrily PYKllHCLrN^. 

The well-known Bullfincli of the British Islands is placijd at th* 
head of this subfamily, of which there are about seven speciee, in- 
habiting various porta of the world. The couutries where one or 
other of them are found are Europe, Cashmere, the HimolajaD 
regions, Bhotan, Japan, and the Azores. 

Genua PrsKHTOA. 

171. PrKEmiLA TOLBARI8 Vol. HI. PI. XLI. 

BnttFIBOH. 

172. Pybrhdla vttmarib Vol. UI. PI. XLII. 

BinjJiNCH (young). 
Very generally diapereed over Eiigland, Scotland, and Ireland, 
and, as it breeds therein, must be regarded as a stationary species. 

OenUB Cabpobactis. 

Although the propriety of placing the Scarlet Bullfinch (Cai-podamt 
erijlhrinwi) and the Piue-GroHbeak {Pimcola eaudeator) in the sub- 
family Pyrrlmllnm may be questioned, it is certainly the best situa- 
tion I can BBsign to them in the British avifauna. 

Of the genus Carpodacxs about nine species are known, some of 
wliich inhabit America. 

173. CiKroDACTTs EBYTHHiK-Ds Vol. lU. n. Xmi. 

Scarlet BuiipmcH. 

A native of North-eoHtem Europe and Asia, only two instances 
of the occurrence of which in this country are on record— one neai 
Brighton, and another in Caen Wood, Hampstead, Uiddlesez. 

Genus Pisicola. 

Two or threo very distinct species of Pine- Grosbeaks are now 

known, one of which frequents Norway, Lapland, and Russia ; tha 

other, P. canadfnsii, is as eselusively an iahabitaut of the northern 

portions of America, Canada, aud Hudson's Bay. 

1T4. PlNICOLA ElTtrcLEATOR Vol. III. PI. XLIT, 

Pihe-Grosseak. 

Avery rare and inconstant visitor to the British Islands; still 
many instances are on record of its having been killed here. 

Subfamily lOXIAN^. 

As the great foroste of conifers are peculiar to the northern por- 
tions of the globe, so also are the members of the present remarkable 



83 

group of birds, whose singularly constructed bills are especially 
adapted for extracting the seeds from the cones of these trees. Six 
or seven species are all that are known ; and these are spread over 
the Old World, from Europe, throughout Northern Asia, to Japan, 
and in the JN'ew World from the Arctic regions to Mexico. Two 
species come to Britain at uncertain intervals to breed. 

Genus Loxia. 

175. Loxia curvieostea Vol. III. PI. XLV. 

Common Crossbill. 

A pretty regular visitor, if not a stationary species, in Scotland, 
where it sometimes breeds. 

176. Loxia pityopsittacus Vol. III. PI. XL VI. 

Parrot Crossbill. 

Has occurred many times in Britain, and may have remained and 
bred ; but if so, no authentic instances of such an occurrence are on 
record. 

177. Loxia bif asciata Vol. III. PL XL VII. 

White-winged Crossbill. 

Hah, JS'orthern Europe and Asia. 

Many instances are on record of this bird having been killed in the 
central portion of Europe ; and it has frequently occurred in England, 
and twice in Ireland. 

178. Loxia leucopteea Vol. III. PL XLVIII. 

Ameelcan White-winged Crossbill. 

Inhabits North America, and is of rare occurrence in England. 
Besides the specimen alluded to in my account of the species as 
having been found on the shore at Exmouth, Mr. Harting mentions 
other instances of its appearance in England, and Mr. Gray one 
near Jedburgh in Scotland. 

Genus Linota. 

The generic term Linota, proposed by Bonaparte, and that of 
Linaria, by Bechstein, appear to have been both applied to this small 
group of PringiUine birds, the members of which are principally, if 
not solely, confined to the northern parts of Europe and Asia. 

179. Linota CANNABiNA . . . . . • . Vol. III. PI. XLIX. 
Linnet. 

Resident in and very generally distributed over Britain ; partially 
migrates south on the approach of winter. 

g2 



180. LmoTA MouncM Vol. III. PI. L. 

TwiTK or MoTraTAiw-LisTtEX. 
A winter viaitant to England, romaining to breed in its northara 
counties, and also in Scotland, ThompHon statea that it is resiileBt 
from the north to the south of Ireland. 

Genus .^giothus. 

The momberB of this genus, familiarly known by the name of 

Eedpoles, are inhabitants of the boreal regions of both the Old and 

the New World— some of them affecting very high latitudes, and 

even breeding within the arctic circle. 

ISl. J!giothcs lisaria Vol. III. PI. IJ. 

Me ALT IIedpole. 
The native countries of this bird are Norway and Lapland, whence 
it migrates to England and Scotland in antumn and winter. Is said 
not to have been seon in Ireland; but it certainly must occur there, 
aa it also does in America. 

182. ^GIOTHUS BUPEBCEUa Vol. III. PI. LII. 

Lesser Hedfole. 

A stationary species in Britain ; winters in all our southeni conn- 
ties, and retires to the northern parts of England and Scotland for 
the purpose of breeding ; according to Thompson it also nests in 
Ireland. With respeet to the range of thia bird, see Profeaaor New- 
tott'u remarks in the ' Zoologist ' for 1870, p. 2223. 

Family STURNID^. 

The Starlings and Pastors constitute a very natural group of birds 
which chiefly inhabit Asia, Africa, and Europe. Two, belonging to 
different genera, form part of the British fauna. 

Genus Stubnts. 

The true Starlings are few in numbor, only six npeeies being 

enumerated in the most recently compiled list. They are all denizens 

of the northern parta of the Old World, and are found in Europe, 

Asia Minor, Persia, Afghanistan, and China. 

183. Snmiros vcmakib Vol. III. PL LIH. 

Starlins. 

184. SirastiB viJLOARis Vol. III. PI. LIT. 

STAKLmB (young). 

A resident species. Breeds in the three kingdoms, and is gre- 
garious in autumn, winter, and spring. 



Genua PAaioR. 

Tlie birds of this form, which are almost peculiar to the European, 
African, and Asiatic portions of the globe, are at once interesting 
and uaoful,^ — intereiiting on accoant af tiieir beauty, and useful from 
the good they effect in the eountriea they frequent by the destruc- 
tion of the loouats and other insects and their larvte, upon which 
tJiey feed. 



Vol. ni. Pi. LV. 



Vol. rrr. pi. Lvr. 



185. PASTOH KOSEPB 

BOSB-COLOITRED PaSIOH. 

186. Pastoe BosEca 

EOBF.-COLOURBD PaSIOH (jOUng). 

A heautiftil but unuBU ally- coloured bird, wliich ia very plentifiil 
in Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, aud Western India. It 19 merely 
an accidental visitor to England, Scotland, and Ireland. 

Family ICTERID^. 

Hub ia a purely American femily, comprising considerably more 
tlian a hundred species, wliich are spread over the continent of 
America and the approximate islands. Two of them have from time 
to time wandered far from their native homes and sought a haven 
in the Eritiah Islands. 

GenuB AoBLAius. 

Of this section of leterine birds about five species are known, the 
habitats of which are almost excliisively confined to the tomperate 
and iiortjiem parts of the American continent. 

187. Aqeiaius PucENicBirs, 
lied- winged Starling. 

Nine instances are on record of the occurrence of this species in 
Britain, namely seven in England and two in Scotland. The earliest 
of these appears to be the one mentioned as having been taken near 
London, byAlbin, in his ' History of British Birds,' published in 
1731-38, after which the bird seems to have remained unnoticed 
until the year 1843, between which date and 1871 eight others are 
described ae having been met with in various parts of the country. 
The late Mr. Tarrell figured this transatlantic species in the supple- 
ment to hia 'History of British Birds,' to which work, as well as 
those of Wilson and Audubon, I must refer my readers for its his- 
tory ; for, as I do not consider the bird pertaina to our fauna, I havo 
aot included a figure of it in this work. 

Genus SrirairKLLA. 
A peculiar group of grass-loving birds, strictly confined to America, 
over which country the five known apeciea are diatributed. 



188. SnTENELLA Lttoottciaua. 
American Ueadow-Stiirlmg. 

Three instances of the occurrence of this bird in England hare 
recorded^ — Mr. Sclatcr mentioning, in 'The Ibis' for 18(!1, one that 
had been shot at Thrandeston, in Suffolk, and another seen at Sonth 
Walsham, in Norfolk, and Mr, Lloyd the third, in the ' Field ' for 
March 1871, as having been obtained near Cheltenham many years 
ago ; this latter Bpecimen was seen and verified by Mr. Hartjng. 

This species, like the preceding, being purely American, I have 
not included a figure of it in my work. For all particulars respecting 
' " .... ^^j jj^^ Sclatcr's paper 



Family CORVID^. 

The members of this family, comprising some of the very largest 
of the InsesBorial birds, are distinguished by several characteristics, 
and arc divided into many genera. The Crows, the Daws, the 
Books, and the Choughs may bo regarded nsthe more typical forms, 
and the Jays, Pies, and Nutcrackers as the more aberrant ; still they, 
with many other genera, are placed in this large and all but nnirer- 
sally spread family. 

Genus Co^vca. 

One or other of the tnie Crows are dispersed over ell parts of the 
globe, with the exception of the southern portion of America, New 
Zealand, and Polynesia, where none are to be found. StnicLnrslly 
they are considered by many writers to be among the most perfectly 
formed birds which exist, their organization enabling them to fly 
through tho air, perch on the branches of trees, and walk over the 
snrfnce of the ground with equal facility, and the muscles of their 
throats permitting them to utter connected sentences scareely equalled 
by the members of any other group of birds. 



i9, CoRTTJs CI 



Vol. III. PI. Lvn. 



A rcHidont species, generally dispersed over the three kingdoms — 
plentiful in the north, more scarce in the south, where its great biks 
and ijuestionable habits procure it many enemies. Besides Sritain, 
the northern portion of Enrojie, Asia, and America are countries 
which may include it in their avifaunas. 



Vol. III. PI. LVIII. 



IflO. CORTDS OOEOBE 

Caebiok-Ceow. 
A resident apedcB, generally difFoacd over the three kingdoms ; is 
also found in most parts of Etiropc, Jerdon, on the authority of 



Dr. Adams, asaigDa it a place in the faana of India, and Swinhoe in 
that of Chiiia ; while it frequents at least the northern portioti 
of Africa. 



. cobtts cosnis , 
Hooded Cbow. 



Vol. III. PI. LIX. 



A resident species in the three kingdoms ; breeds in Scotland and 
Ireland, and but very rarely in England ; is to bo mot with in many 
parts of the European continent, both north and south ; and is par- 
ticularly common in Palestine and Egypt, where it is often the 
fostor-parent of the young of the Great Spotted Cuckoo (O.vyhphus 
glimdarius), 

192, CoKyna FBiraitEoua Vol. III. PI. LX. 

I have retained this bird in the genus Corvus ; many other authors 
have adopted Lesson's genus FrugUegua, and Prof. Kaup's term of 
3'rjf/i7tano(wrait for it and its immediate allies. Unlike the Crows 
the Books ere gregarious and associate in immense flocks ; they differ 
from them also in the structure of their biUs, the peculiar form of 
which seems adapted for sonie special purpose, perhaps for the pro- 
curation of a particular kind of food, such as large undorground- 
depnaited larva; of insects, grain, and tuhcrons roots, as the husband- 
man well kuowa to his cost. The rook is even still more oranivorouB ; 
for it will not refuse worms, crufltaeeana, or carrion thrown up by 
the waves of the sea. Generally dispersed over England, Scotland, 
and Ireland. Kooks are only found in a limited portion of the Old 
"World. 



193. CoBVirS MONBDTILA Vol. III. PI. LXI. 

Jackjjaw. 
Even this indigenous species and its several near allies have been 
subjected to a generic separotion from the genus Connts, the term 
Lyeo» having been bestowed upon it by Boie, the specific names 
of the others being eollaris for the Maeedonian bird, dauuritas for 
tiie Dauriaa and Chinese species, neglectus for that inhabiting 
Japan. All are of small size when compared with the true Crows ; 
ttiey affect different situations for the purpose of breeding, resorting 
to rocks, old towers, and holes in the ground rather than to the 
trees. They are strictly denizens of the Old World. 

Genus FREsiLira. 

The fied-legged Grows differ considerably from any of the species 
above noticed, and are certainly entitled to a separate generic appiel- 
lation, and accordingly have received three or four. The genus 
comprises hut few species, only two being rocogniiied, namely the 



bird inhabiting Europe, F. gracKlv^, and the F. himaltiyensis of Oh 
Himalayas. 

194. FREBitufl QRAcnxcB Vol. III. PI. LXK. 

Chocgh. 
This truly 



B species is spread over the three kingdoms, 
Q Scotland ; hreeda in the tocIh on the aea-shore, 
in companywith ConuoraiitB, Gulls, PiifSnti, and Guilleniot*. Found 
also in many of the hilly and Alpine parts of the European 
tinent and in North Africa. 



B Pica. 



A very elegant group of birds, whether seen among the brani 
of trees or on the ground. Their powers of flight are not bo great 
as those of the preceding members of the family. All are similarly 
coloured, black, white, and green with bronzy reflections being the 
prevailing tints. Two species inhabit the northern portions of 
America ; one is peculiar to Africa ; the remainder frequent Europe, 
Asia, and Japan,- — each being confined to its own limited area, beyond 
which it is seldom found. 



i(H^^ 



195. Pica caboata Vol. HI. PI. 

Ma6pie, 
An omamentai and stationary speciee, inhahiting most of the 
counties of England, Scotland, and Ireland. 






Genus Gakrolub. 

If we restrict this genus to the birds of the Old- World form, of 
which our iatoiliar Jay is a typical example, it will be found to coa- 
siat of nine or ten species, and, as is the case with the MagpieB, that 
Europe and Asia are their head quarters ; at the same time North 
Africa is not destitute of its own peculiar Jay. Structurally they 
are especially adapted for frequenting the branches of trees, and not 
for the ground, although they are often seen there. They are a 
sly, crafty race ; and much obloquy attaches to them for their habit 
of pilfering the eggs and the young of other birds ; fruits and berries, 
insects, snails, worms, and other of the lower animals afforded by 
forests constitute, however, their chief food. 



196, GARTJLrs 



Vol. III. PI. LXIV. 



A resident species, more common in England than in Scotland. 
Thompson says it is only indigenous in the southern parts of Ireland, 
*. H. Gumey considers that an autumnal migration takes _' 
ir eastern coasts. On the continent of Europe the JayJ 



r>^^ 



generally dispersed wherever the country is suited to its habits. I 
have a, specimen killed in Spain which does not differ from examples 
obtained in this country. 

Genus Nuciphaoa. 

Only three or four species of Nutcracker have yet been charac- 
terized. They are inhabitants of Europe and Asia. 

197. NudPttAflACAKIOCATACTES Vol, III, PI. LXT. 

NmORAOKBB. 

198. NiroiFKAaA cabyocatacibs .... Vol. III. PI. LXVI. 
Ndtcbackbr (young). 

Indigenous in moat of the mountainous and woody countries of 
Europe ; breeds abundantly in Switzerland. In England it can 
only be considered an accidental visitor. Mr. Halting, ia hia 
' Handbook of British Birds,' enumerates about twenty instances of 
its occurrence here from the date Pennant wrote, 1753, to within a 
few years of the present time, 1872 ; still these visits can only be 
regarded as accidental. 



Family CUCULID^. 

The members of this great family of birds are rendered especially 
remarkable and interesting from the circumstance of the greater 
number of them having parasitic habits. The entire family com- 
prises about two hundred species, which are subdivided into several 
Bubl'amilies, and many genera. They are universally dispersed over 
the temperate portions of the globe ; but not moro than a fourth part 
of the whole number are found in America. 

Genus CircoLiJs. 

The members of this genus, restricted to the true Cuckoos, are 
tolerably numerous. One species inhabits Europe ; and there are 
others in India, China, Java, Sumatra, the islands of the Indian 
■rchipelago, and Australia ; they are also well represented in 
Africa. 

189. Cccrms canokub Vol. m. PI. LXVU. 

CoHMOM Cuckoo. 
200. CrrcuLFs canobos Vol. lU. PI. LXVIII. 

CoMHOM Cucaoo (young). 
The common Cuckoo is a true migrant, coming to us from the 
■outh in May, and departing again in September, the young being 
;frequently left behind to a later period of the year. 



* 

I now find that the opinion ventured in my aeconnt of this speda 
as to the impoBsibility of the young Cuckoo ejecting the young of its 
foater-parenta at the early age of three or four days is erroneoua; 
for a lady of undoubted veracity and eonsiderable abihty aa an ob- 
server of nature and as im artist, haa actually seen the act performed, 
and has illustrated her Btatement of the fact by a sketch taken at 
the time, a tracing of which has been kindly sent to me by the 
Duke of Argyll, and I have considered it of sufficiont interest 
to reproduce here in a woodcut. The sketch was accompanied by 
Mrs. Blaokbum's acoouat of the circumstance aa it came under her 
observation — which is here given from No. 124 of ' Nature,' a 
weekly illustrated journal of science. 

" Several well-known naturalists who have seen my sketch from 
life of the youag Cuckoo ejecting the young Pipit (opposite p. 22 of 
the little versified tale of mine) • have expressed a wish that the 
detaib of my observations of the scene should he published. I 
therefore send you the facts, though the sketch itself seems to me to 
be the only important addition I have made to the admirably accu- 
rate description given by Dr. Jenner in his letter to John Hunter, 
which is printed in the ' Philosophical Transactions ' for 1788 (vol. 
Ixsviii. pp. 22J, 226), and which 1 have read with pleaaiiro since 
putting do mi my own notes, 

"The nest (which we watched last June, after finding the Cuckoo's 
egg in it) was that of the common Meadow-Pipit (Titlark, Moss- 
cheeper), and had two Pipit's eggs besides that of the Cuckoo. It 
was Mow B. heather bush, on the duelivity of a low abrupt bank on 
a Highland hill-side in Itoidort. 

" At one visit the Pipits were found to be hatched, but not the 
Cuckoo, At the next viait, which was after an iuterval of forty- 
eight hours, we found the young Cuckoo alone in the nest, and both 
the young Pipits Ij'ing down the hank, about ten inches from the 
margin of the nest, but quite lively after being warmed in the hand. 
They were replaced in the nest beside of the Cuckoo, which 
struggled abont till it got its back under one of thorn, wlien it 
climbed backwards directly up the open side of the nest, and hitched 
the Pipit from its hack on to the edge. It then stood qnite upright 
on its legs, which were straddled wide apart, with the claws firmly 
fixed halfway down the inside of the nost, among the interlacing 
fibres of which the nest was woven ; and, stretching its wings apart 
and backwards, it elbowed the Pipit fairly over the margin so far 
that its struggles took it down the bank instead of hack into the 

" After this the Cuckoo stood a minute or two, feeling hack with 
its wings, as if to make euro that the Pipit was fairly overboard, and 
then subsided into the bottom of the nost. 

" As it was getting late, and the Cuckoo did not immediately set 
to work on the other nestling, I replaced the ejected one, and went 

• • The Pipits,' illiislnit«i bv Mrs. Hiigli Blnckbiini. Ginggow : Mftclphow, 
1R72. 



91 

I home. On returning next day, both nestlings were found dead and 
•old, out of the neat. I replaced one of them ; but the CQcklffi made 
no effort to get under and eject it, but settled itself contentedly on 
the top of it. All thia I find aceorda accurately with Jenner's de- 
scription of what he saw. But what struck me moat vaa this ; 

, The Cuckoo was perfectly ntiked, without a vestige ol' u feather, or 




^n a hint of future feathers ; its eyea were not yet opened, and its 

tck aeeraed too weak to' support the weight of it« head. The Pipits 

td well-(]eYe]oped quills on the wings and back, and had bright 

'es, partially open ; yet they seemed quite helpless under the mani- 

dations of the Cuckoo, which looked a much lees developed creature. 

« Cuckoo's legs, however, aeemed very muscular, and it appeared 

feel about with its wings, which were absolutely fcatherless, as 

ith hands, the 'spurious wing' (unusually large in proportion) 

oking like a spread-out thumb. The moat aingulur thing of all was 

iB direct purpose with which the blind little monster made for the 

len aide of the nest, the only part where it could throw ita burthen 

own the bank. I think all the spectators felt the Bort of horror and 

awe at the apparent inadequacy of the creature's intfilligenee to its 

acl« that one might have felt at seeing a toothleas hag raise a ghost 

by an incantation. It was horribly ' uncanny ' and ' grewsonie.' " 

A few words more on this subject. My friend Mr. Noble, of Park 
flfee. Hen ley-on -Thames, wrote to me thus on the 4th of May, 
[871 :— 



" Mrs. Noble told me this morning that a Wagtml had bnilt a neat 
in ourflining-room balcony ; on going thither I found the nest in a 
oortter quite exposed, with three eggs in it, one much larger than 
the others; the two amaller ones wore of & greenist colour with 
minut* Epota, the larger of a deeper green and more largely blotched. 
Caa Hiia be a Caokoo's?" 

On Sunday, May the 2lBt, I saw this neflt with four young birda, 
three lying by the side of the nest, from which they had evidently 
been but recently thrown, as they were plump and fresh. Al- 
lowing, therefore, that the Wagtail had laid a third egg on the 
5th of May, and thirteen or fourteen days for the hatching of 
these birds, they must have been ejected in about three days 
after exclusion. On the 3l8t of the same month Mr. Noble again 
wrote r — " The Cuckoo ia nearly fledged ; he rises in the neat in the 
most hideous way, extending his neek like n serpent." 

Were we in possession of similar positive evidence of the means 
by which the Cuckoo's egg is deposited in the dome-shaped nest of 
the Wren, and iu thone of other birds, as we now have of those in 
which the young of the foster-parents are ejected, the history of the 
breeding-habits of this remarkable bird would be complete. 

Genus OxYLOPmrs, 
There are several species of this genus, which inhabit Africa, 
India, and some of tho islands to the southward. They are, I be- 
lieve, all parasjtiej laying their eggs in the Jicsts of Crows, Magpies, 
and other large birds. 

201, OlTlOPHCS QLANDAEnrS Vol. III. PI. T.XTX . 

GaEiT Spotted Cfckoo, 

Two individuals of this species having been killed in our islands, 
one in Ireland and another in Northumberland, it becomes necessary 
to figure it in the present work. Bespecting this latter example, I re- 
ceived the following note from Lord Itavensworth, Dec. 5, 1871 :— 

" You will no doubt be interested to hear that a specimen of the 
Great Spotted Cuckoo was shot last summer, in July or August, upon 
the moors at Hesleyside, the noted seat of W, H. Charlton, Esq., on 
the banks of the North Tyne. It has been preserved, but unluckily 
is indifferently set up." The Eev. H. B. Tristram informs me that 
he handled this bird in the flesh before it had been skinned. 

In Southern Europe this bird is pleutifiil during summer, and in 
North AMca it is to be seen at all times. Even the rapacious 
Hooded Crow does not disdain to become the foster-parent of the 
young of this species. 

Genus Cocctzirs. 



93 

202. CoocYzirs americantts. 

Yellow-billed Cuckoo. 

Five instances of the occurrence of this species with us have been 
recorded by Mr. Harting in his * Handbook of British Birds ' — ^two in 
Ireland, two in Wales, and one in Cornwall. A figure will be found 
in Yarrell's * History of British Birds/ vol. ii. p. 210. 

203. Coccrzus ertthbophthalmus. 
Black-biUed Cuckoo. 

One killed in- the county Antrim, Sept. 25, 1871, see 'Zoologist, 
1872, p. 3022. 

I have not considered it necessary to figure these two American 
species, as they certainly do not belong to our fauna. 



Family PICID^. 

With the exception of Australia, New Zealand, and Polynesia, 
Woodpeckers are distributed over the temperate and warmer regions 
of every country both of the Old and the New World. About 300 
species are enumerated in the useful ' Hand-list of Birds ' of the late 
Mr. G. R. Gray, of the British Museum. As might naturally be 
supposed, much diversity of form exists among the members of so 
vast a body of birds, each form being especially adapted to some 
given purpose or locality, the boles and leafy foliage of trees, rocky 
parched plains and humid grassy meadows being alike resorted to 
by one or other of them. They are all zygodactyle in the form 
of their feet, although, in some cases, only a rudiment of one of 
the hind toes is found to exist. So far as my knowledge extends, 
they one and all deposit their beautiful shining white eggs in the 
boles of trees ; but I think it probable that some few may occasionally 
place theirs in crevices of rocks. Their principal food consists of 
insects and their larvae; the ground-frequenting species consume 
ants and their eggs in great numbers ; and fruits and berries are 
not rejected by others. The species inhabiting Europe are about 
ten in number, fpur of which are represented in the present work ; 
and I here subjoin notices of the occurrence of two or three other 
accidental visitors from America. 



SubfamUy PICIN^. 

Genus Picns. 

Members of this truly arboreal form are found both in the Old and 
in the New World. They feed almost exclusively on insects and 
their larvae, but probably partake of spiders also, which they search 
for and extract from the bark of trees. 




204. PiCDH MAjoK Vol. III. PI. LSX. 

GHEIT SfOTTEB WoODPHtBEB. 

A resident speeies. Common in Eiiglund, but more rai'cijr mjet 
vith in Scotland and Irelaad. 

205. Pici-e LEircoHOTCS VoL lU. PI. T.XXt.- 

WaiTK-BiCltED WOODI^BCKSB. 

An accidental riMitor t* the Hebrides, 

206. PicnB MiNOB Vol. HI. PL T-TXTT, 

LssBER Spotted Woodpecseb, 

A resident epeoies in EDglacd, extremely rare, if at all to be fonnd, 
in Scotland, and never occura in Ireland, 

The late Mr. Briggs, of Cookham, in Berkahire, who waa a cloM 
observer of nature, and especially of our native birds, informed me 
just prior to his death that he had witnessed many curious acttona 
and displays performed by this species while flitting and hoverii^ 
■with outspread wings around the leafy branches and crowns of high 
trees, apparently engaged in capturing smiUl insects. I deem ft 
necessary to mentiou this, because we really know but little ro- 
specting the actions of even our conunoneat Woodpecker. 

207. PiCTIS viLLoaus. 

Hairy Woodpecker. 
There is no doubt about this American species having beea killed 
several times in Britain. Latham mentions a pair from Halifax, * 
Yorkshire, in the colleotion of the then Duchess of Portland ; ani 
aae was killed in 1849 at Whitby, in Yorkshire, as stated by Mr. 
Higgins in the ' Zoologist ' for that year, p. 249B, This Litt«r »pa* 
eimen I have examined, and have no doubt of its identity, nor of tb» 
authenticity of its occurrence. It is not flgored, because it is piu^ly 
American and only an accidental visitor. 

208. PiCUS PITBESCENS. 

Downy Woodpecker. 

Mr. Harling mentions the occurrence of a single example of thif 
bird at Bloxworth, near Blandford, Dorsetshire, in December 183d, 
as reported by the Eev, 0. P. Cambridge in the ' Zoologist ' for 1859, 
p. 6444. 

Owing to this species being a native of the New World, and ibi 
having been only once seen in England, I have not given a fij 
of it. 

Genus Dryocopfs. 
As restricted, this genus contains but a single species. 



95 

209. Dryocopus martius. . . . . . Vol. III. PI. LXXIII. 

Great Black Woodpecker. 

This bird is of large size ; and the prevailing tint of its plumage is 
sooty black, relieved by red on the crown. Its native localities are 
the pine-woods of Norway, Sweden, and Switzerland. Many in- 
stances of its having been killed in Britain are recorded ; but it is 
probable that not one of them is authentic. At aU events there is not 
a certified British-killed specimen in any of our Museums or private 
collections ; consequently it is a very doubtful visitor. For further 
information respecting it I refer my. readers to the letterpress 
accompanyiug the Plate. 

Subfamily GECININ^. 

Genus Gbcintjs. 

The members of this genus (known as Green Woodpeckers) being 
less arboreal than the true i\a, spend much of their time on the 
ground. In Britain the trimly kept lawns and meadoivs are favourite 
places of resort. Their food mainly consists of ants and their larvae. 
Besides O, viridis three more species inhabit Europe ; and pthers are 
to be found in Asia and Africa. 

210. Gecinus viridis Yol. III. PI. LXXIV. 

Green Woodpecker, or Yaffle. 

A resident species in England, in many parts of which it is known 
by the name of " Yaffle." It is rare in Scotland, and has not yet 
been seen in the sister kingdom of Ireland. 

211. Gecintjs VIRIDI3 Yol. III. PI. LXXY. 

Green Woodpecker, or Yaffle (young). 

Subfamily COLAPTIN^. 

Genus Colaptes. 

A purely American form, comprisiug about six or seven species, 
ranging from the United States to Bolivia. 

212. Colaptes auratus. 

Golden-winged Woodpecker. 

A native of the eastern parts of North America, a single example 
of which was killed in Amesbury Park, Wiltshire, in the autumn 
of 1836, as recorded by Mr. George S. Marsh, of Chippenham, in the 
* Zoologist ' for 1859, p. 6327, where he says, " My brother saw this 
bird in the flesh, just after it was shot. It was preserved by Mr. 
Edwards, of Amesbury, and has never been out of my possession." 



96 

Subfanuly YUNGIN-ffi. 

Genus Yijnx. 

Only three or four species are known of this very anomalous 
Old- World form. Their range extends over a great portion of the 
northern regions of Asia, entering Japan, and one species Eastern 
and Southern Africa. 

213. Ytjnx TOBaxriLLA . . . . . . . VoL m. PL LXXVI. 

A true harbinger of spring, arrives before the Swallow, serenades 
us with its peculiar cry of Pee-pee-pae, and but seldom exposes its 
body to view. Is generally distributed over England and the 
southern portion of Scotland. Our Irish ornithologists must r^ret 
that it does not visit their country ; for a more curious creature does 
not exist. Many of its actions, and the character of its markings, 
have procured for it the trivial name of " Snakebird," 



97 



ORDER BASOBES. 

Family COLUMB^. 

The members of the ColumbsB, or Pigeons, may be said to be more 
universally dispersed than any other family of birds ; for there is no 
portion of the globe, favoured with a temperate or warm climate, 
where representatives of one or more of the various genera of which 
it is composed do not exist. In round numbers, between three and 
four hundred species are now known ; of these, four are inhabitants 
of Britain^ one of which is a summer migrant. 

Genus Palumbvs. 

214. Palttmbus TORauATus Yol. lY. PI. I. 

Wood-Pigeon or Cushat. 

A stationary species, universally dispersed over Britain and most 
parts of Europe and North AMca. 

Genus Colttmba. 

A form the members of which are chiefly confined to the Old 
World. 

216. COLUMBA (ENAS .,..•...,. Yol. lY. PI, 11. 

Stock Dove. 
Partially migratory, but breeds with us. 

216. CoLTTMBA uviA Yol. lY. PL ni. 

Bock-Pigeon. 

Common and stationary in all the rocky portions of Britain, the 
supposed origin of our domestic Pigeon. 

Genus Ttjrttjr. 

This genus is represented by the well-known Turtledove, that 
Tiflits Britain in spring, to which several eastern species might be 
added. 

217. TlTBTUB AUEITUS Yol. lY. PI. lY. 

Tttbtle Dove. 

A true summer resident in aU the southern and midland portions 
of Britain, 



Genna Ectopistks. 
318. EoTOFiBTBS laoaATOBins. 
Migratory Pigoon. 
A native of North America ; three o 
currence in Eugluud and Scotland arc oi 



Family TETRAONIDjE. 

The Grouse (the trivial name for the membere of thk family) are 
among the most important of edible birds. They esiat in very rar- 
(^umseribed limits, namely the northern portions of the Old andNew 
"Worlds. Those which frequent Britain are the magnificent Co- 
l)ercailzie, the Blackcock, the Eed Grouse, and the Ptarmigan, 
NeitJier the Capcrcailsio nor the Blackcock is found in America; 
tut that ooantry ia inhabited by species equally fine which are not 
found elsewhere. 

Genus Tbtrio. 

il9. Tetsao cBOGAiiTia Vol. IV. PI. V. 

Capercailzie or Cock of ihb wood. 
Breeds la Scotland in ahundimce. 



:i20. Tethao teteis . 
Blackcock. 



Vol. rv. PI. VL 



A stationary and breeding species in the three kingdoms. 



Genus Laboptts. 

The well-knoTrn Hed Grouau of England, Wales, Scotland, and 
Ireland may be regarded as the type of the present genus. 

221. Lagopds BCOTictra Vol. IV. PI. Til. 

Inhabits England, Scotland, and Ireland, but not south of Wales. 



222. Laboptts mtttus . 
Ptabmigaw. 
Stationary, 

2S3. Laqofcb uutub 
PiABMiBAM (suniE 



Vol. rv. PI. vin. 



Vol. IV. PI. IX. 



r plumage). 



09 

224. Laooptis inmrs . Yol. lY. PI. X. 

Ptakmioan (autumn plumage), 

I have considered it desirable to give three plates, illustrating three 
very distinct states of plumage, of this very variable bird. 

Genus Stbrhaptes. 

An Old- World genus of Sand-Grouse, comprising two species, the 
n^itive haunts of which are the Steppes of Eussia, China, and Thibet. 
A large number of individuals of the S, paradoxus made an extra- 
ordinary visit to various parts of the European continent and Britain 
in the years 1859 and 1860. 

226. Stbbhaptbs pabadoxus Yol. lY. PL XI. 

Pali:.as*s SAiTD-GBOirsB. 
For particulars see the text of the Plate referred to. 



Family PHASIANID^. 

Genus PHASiAiors. 

* 1 • * 

A genus of six or eight species, aU of which are natives of the 
northern regions of the Old World, from Asia Minor to Japan. 
Although India, particularly its hilly portions, abounds in gallina- 
ceous birds, no true Pheasant is found there. 

22^. Phasiantjs colchicus Yol. lY. Pi. XTT. 

Common Pheasant. 

A former introduction, probably from Turkey or some part of the 
neighbourhood of the Black Sea. 



Family PERDICIDiE. 

In this division of the GallinacesB is comprised a great number of 
varied forms, most of which are natives of the northern portions 
of the Old World. In England we have two which may be 
considered indigenous, the Grey- and the Red-legged Partridge ; 
the migratory Quail also frequently spends the summer in these 
kingdoms. 

Genus Pebdix. 

A genus of three species, namely: — P. cinerea, habitat Europe; P. 
barbattis, habitat China ; and P. Hodgsonias^ habitat Thibet. 

h2 



100 

227. Pbedix cinbeba . VoL IV. PL XIII. 

Pabtbidge. 

A stationary species. 

Genus Caccabis. 

A genns instituted for the Eed-legs, which differ conspicuously by 
their finer plumage and the presence of spurs on their tarsi. 

228. Caccabis bubba Vol. IV. PL XIV. 

Eed-legged Pabtbidoe. 

A stationary species. 

229. Caccabis petbosa. 

It is stated that wild specimens of this bird have been killed in 
England ; but as this is questionable I do not figure it. 

Genus Cotubnix. 

A form comprised of a limited number of species, which range 
generally over the Old World — ^Europe, India, China, the southern- 
most parts of Africa, Australia, and New Zealand. 

230. COTXIBNIX COMMUNIS Vol. IV. PL XV. 

Common Quail. 

A summer but uncertain migrant to England, while in Ireland it 
appears to be stationary ; at least Quails are frequently seen there in 
winter. 

Family TURNICID^. 

The Tumices (or Hemipodes, as they are frequently called) con- 
stitute a distinct group among the Gallmacese. About fifteen species 
are known, all of which inhabit the sandy portions of the Old "World, 
but are most abundant in Australia. The European fauna comprises 
but one, individuals of which have now and then wandered to 
Britain, probably from Spain. 

231. TUBNIX AFBICANA VoL IV. PL XVI. 

Ain)ALUSIAlf TUBNIX, 

An accidental visitor. 



Family OTIDIDJB. 

The Bustards, from their large size and noble bearing, constitute 
one of the most remarkable groups in ornithology. They are all in- 



101 

habitants of the sandy plains of the Old World ; and many of the 
most conspicuons species are natives of Africa. 

Genus Ons. 

Pormerly Great Britain enumerated a fine bird of this genus; 
now and then, however, a solitary individual flies over to us from 
Spain or Prance, where it is still tolerably plentiful. 

232. Ons TAKDA Vol. IV. PI. XVII. 

Gbeat Bijstasd. 

Accidental visitant. 

233. Ons TBTRAX , , , Vol. IV. PI. XVHI. 

Ltttls Bijstabd. 

Accidental visitant. 

234. Ons MAcaiTEENn. 
Macqueen's Bustard. 

Quite accidental. 

A native of Afghanistan and the neighbouring countries. A spe- 
cimen of this bird, now in the possession of the Philosophical Society 
of York, was killed at Kirton Lindsay, in Lincolnshire, on the 7th 
of October, 1847. Still,*with so slight a claim to be considered 
British, I shall content myself with this notice of it and a reference 
to a figure which will be found in my * Birds of Asia.' Specimens 
have also been met with in Holland and Denmark. 



ORDER GBALLATOBES. 

Family GRUIDiE, 

As must have been noticed by every one who has given a moment's 
thought to the subject, the Gruid^, or Cranes, differ from the Herons 
and every other group of birds of which this great order is composed. 
The larger number of the known species are inhabitants of the Old 
World, over which they are widely spread, the plains of Australia 
on the one hand and those of Hindustan on the other being fre- 
quented by one or more species ; the form also occurs in Africa, from 
north to south. In the New "World, the northern portions only are 
tenanted by Cranes ; one species inhabits, or rather did inhabit, the 
British Islands. 

235. Gbtis gutebea Vol. IV. PI. XIX. 

Common Crane. 
An accidental visitant. 



102 

236. Grub vieck). 

Demoiselle Crane. 

A native of Southern Europe, Northern Africa, and India, hsjs been 
seen and one shot in Orkney, in May 1863 (Saxby, * Zoologist,' p. 
8692). Not figured. 

237. Grus pavontnus. 

Balearic Crane. 

This bird has also been captured within the limits of Britain, and 
by some included in our lists of species — wrongly, however, as I think, 
since its true home is north-western Africa, and its occurrence here 
must have been quite accidental. 

Family ARDEID^. 

If the Bitterns are included among the members of this universally 
dispersed family, then the species amount to nearly a hundred in 
number. Unlike the Cranes, they are generally sedentary in their 
habits and aflfect watery situations. In the British avifauna there 
are ten species. 

Genus Ardea. 

238. Ardea cinerea Vol. IV. PI. XX. 

Heron^. 

Resident and very generally dispersed. 

239. Ardea purpurea ■, Vol. IV. PL XXI. 

Purple Heron. 

This fine bird, which is abundant in Holland and France, can only 
be considered an accidental visitor to Britain. 

Genus Herodias. 

240. Herodias alba VoL IV. PL XXII. 

Great "White Egret, or White Heron. 

Quite an accidental visitant, arriving at very uncertain periods. 

241. Herodias garzetta ....... Vol. IV. PL XXIII. 

Little Egret, 

This, like the last, is merely a straggler to Britain. 

Genus Bubulcus. 

242. Bubulcus russatus ....... VoL IV. PL XXIV. 

BUPF-BACKED HeRON. 

An accidental visitor. 



103 

GFenus Bijphus. 

243. BXTPHUS C0MATU8 Vol. IV. PI. XXV. 

SaxxAcco Hebon. 

The visits of this bird are very infrequent, and its appearance not 
to be depended upon. 

Genus Ntcticoeax. 

244. Ntcticobax gkiseijs Vol. IV. PI. XXVI. 

Nioht-Heeon. 

This bird must be considered among our accidental visitors. 

Genus Botattexxs. 

245. BOTATJRXJS STELLARIS Vol. IV. PL XXVII. 

BlTTEKN*. 

Formerly a common stationary form in our marshes and fens; now 
seldom seen, and mostly in winter. 

246. botaurtis lentiginosus vol. iv. pi. xxviii. 

American Bittern. 

The frequent occurrence of this bird in the British Islands de- 
mands a place for it in our avifauna ; and hence I have given a 
figure of it. 

Genus Abdetta. 

247. Ardetta laNTTTA Vol, IV, PI. XXIX. 

Little Bittern. 

Although never to be found with certainty, it is probable that wo 
ire seldom without the presence of this interesting marsh-lover; 
it cannot, however, be considered other than a chance visitor. 



Family CICONIID^. 

This family includes among its members not only our weil- 
known White and Black Storks, but at least twenty other species 
of those useful birds. Whatever the condition of Britain may formerly 
have been, it is no longer suited as a resting-place for either of the 
two species just mentioned ; still scarcely a year passes without one 
or other of them accidentally dropping down on our marshes during 
their wanderings from one country to another. 



Vol. IV. PI. XXX. 



VoL IV. PI. XXXI. 



!4S. CiCOHU ALKi. . . 

Whetb Stoex. 
A chance visitor. 

i49. Cicosii STORA . 

Elack Stosk. 

&n aocidental Tisitor. 



Family PLATALEID^. 

The seven or eight known species of Spooahilla have heen sepa- 
rated into a distinct family by Bonaparte. They are found both in 
the Old and the New World. Althongh so hmited in apeciea they 



a individuals, and a 
Burface of the globe. 

250. Platalba lbucohodu 

Spoosbill. 
in accidental visitor from the Continent. 



Fcry widely dispersed over the 



Vol. IV. PI. xxxn. 



Family CHARADRIIDj*:. 

Mr. Harting, ia his ' Handbook,' bus placed (Edicnemus, Squata- 
rola, Vanellus, Eudromiax, ^i/ialitis, Sti-epsilas, and Iftematopm a» 
a part of this great family of gTound-birds ; and I shall here follow 
his arrangement, sini« no one has paid greater attention to this 
subject than that gentleman. At the same time I must remark 
that perhaps no two persons will agree as to the position of Vaimllui. 

GenuB Vjsellos. 

251. Vanellits ceistatus Vol. IV. PI. XXXm. 

Lapwins, or Peewit. 
Eesident and generally spread over the three kingdoms. About 
four or five of this genus are known ; they inhabit both the Old 
and the Now World. 

Genus HiMANTOPrs. 

Of this form sis or seven species are found in the Old and the 
New World respectively. They are generally termed Stilts or Stilt- 
Plovers, and characterized by ejeganoe in all their actions. 



252. HnunioFTTs cAnnrDtra . . . 
Stilt, or LonO'ISOoed Plover. 
An accidental visitor to Britain. 



Vol. IV. PI. XXXIV. 



Prom four to sis specie*) of this form inhabit each side of the 
Eqiiator in the Old World ; two or three ore similarly dispersed 



Vol. IV. PI. XXXV. 



253. CEdickemits ceepitabb , , , 
Thick -KNEED Bustakb. 

■ Common and stationary in Britain. 

Genua SttuiTAEOLA, 

Our well-known Grey Plover is almost, if not the sole member 
of this genus. 

254. SaiTATAROLA HBLYBTICA Vol. IV. PI. XXXVI. 

Gbky Plovbb. 

A bird remarkahle for the seasonal changes to which it is subject. 
In summer the breast is jet-black, while in winter the same part is 
Btriated or pure white. A bird of passage in Britain, proceeding 
northward in spring and returning southward at the opposite 



2d5. SaCAIABOU BBLVEIICA . 



Grbt Plotbb (winter plumage, and young). 



Vol. IV. PI. SXXVII. 



Genus Charadbitjs. 

The well-known Golden Plover of England may be regarded as 
the type of this genus as now restricted. About five species are 
known, all characterized by the flavour of their deeh and the great 
seasonal changes to which they are subject in summer and winter, 
and which have induced me to give two plates illustrative of them. 
One or other of the five species inhabit most parte of the entire 
globe, but are more abundant in the Old than in the New World. 



256. Cbaiusricb Fi.rviALis 
GoLBEN Plovek (i 
A resident species. 

SS7. CeaRADRIVB PLITVIALIS 



Vol. IV. PI. xxsvin. 



Vol. IV. PI. xxxrx. 



GoLDss Plovbb (in winter plumage). 

Genus jEsiAwrHiLUfl. 
A genuB formed for the Kentish Plover and other allied speeiea. 



258. jEGi*topaiLD8 canhanub Vol. IV. PL XL, 

KBNiiaa Plover. 
A spring and Bummer resident, coming here to breed in May, 
Common on the south coast. 



GenijB ^ajALjriB. 

Of these little Plovers or Ringed Dotterels, as they are more commonly 
called, numerouB species are spread over both the Old and the New 
World. Two are found in Britain — one of which is stationary, the 
other an accidental visitor. 



259. .ffisiALITIB HlATICBLi Yol. IV. PL XLI. 

EXNGED PlOVEB. 

A resident species, abundant in most parts of the three kingdoms. 



Yol. lY. PI. XLIT. 



intiy of which is Eastern 



260. jTIoialitib mkor 

LiiTLB Bjnsbd Plotbe. 
An occasional visitant, the native c 
Europe, Africa, and India. 

201, jEqiaiitib vocipeea. 
Kill-deer Plover. 
This American bird has been added to the list of our feuna from 
the circumstance o£ a specimen having been killed in HampBhire in 

1867. 

Genus Ettdbokias. 

The type and almost the only representative of this genus is the 
well-known Dottorcl, which passes over the British Islands in May. 



Yol. IV. PI. XLni. 



262. ErUBOHTAS UORIN£LLVS . . 
BOTTEHEL. 

Spring and autumn migrant ; breeds in Westmoreland and the 
adjoining counties. 

Genus CDEsonnja. 

A small genus of highly interesting birds which persistently beep 
to the regions of the Old World, and almost exclusively ix> Africa 
and Asia. Swift of foot, they have been called coursers. TTiey arfi 
said to trip over the ground with great nimbleness, their morementa 
then presenting no inapt resemblance to pieces of paper blown about 
by the wind. They naturally inhabit great sandy wastes rather than 
cultivated and arable lands ; and hence the only European species 
is bat seldom seen. 



263. CussoBTue sallicits .... 

dtBiM-COtOUItED OoTTSaEE. 

Quite an accidental visitor to the BritiBli Islands. 



Vol. IV. PI. XLIV. 



Oei 



J Ejguatopub. 



. Although not very nuinerouB in species, there is scarcely any 
country on the face of the globe where this form is not represented. 
In the Bouthern hemisphere, at Cape Horn in America, the Cape of 
Good Hope in Afiica, in the soathemnioat portion of Taamonia and in 
New Zealand, a bird of this form is certain to be seen, while in the 
opposite hemisphero they are nearly as constant. These birds are 
commonly known by the misnomer of Oyster-catchers. 



Vol. IV. PI. XLV. 



264. HLxMATOPus osiBALXOue , , 

OlSTER-CATCHEE. 

A resident species round our coasts. 

GenuB Gi, AREOLA. 

An isolated form among the Plovers. The sis or seven species 
inown are all oonfined to the Old World. Their chief food consists 
of insects, ■which they capture on the wing, after the manner of the 
Swallow, 

In speaking of an allied spwies (ff. melanoptera), Mr J. H. 
Gnmey, in Andersson's ' Birds of Damara Land,' states : — " The 
principal enemy of these great swarms (of locustsl, and the valued 
friend of the Cape farmer, is the small locust-bird, Glareota Mord- 

manni These birds come, I may say, in millions, attendant 

on the flying swarms of locusts : indeed the appearance of a few of 
them is looked upon as a sure presage of the locust swarms being at 
hand. Their mode of operation, as I saw it, was as follows : — TLey 
intercept a portion of the swarm aud form themselves into a ring of 
considerable height, regularly widening towards the top, so as to 
present the appearance of a revolving balloon or huge spinning-top. 
They thus fly one over the other, aud, hawking at the locusts, gra- 
,-dnally contract their circle and speedily demolish the locusts within 
its limits. As their digestion, like that of all insectivorous birds, is 
very rapid, the form in which they thus enclose their prey is admj- 
.rably adapted to enable the lower to escape the droppings of the 
upper birds. When they have consumed this portion of the swarm, 
they follow up the main body and commence another attack, and so 
on, until night sets in and the birds happen to lose the swarm or 
the locusts are all devoured. I should not forget to mention that 
the beak of these birds is exactly of such a shape and such ditnen- 
mons that when they seize the locusts the snap cuts off the four 
wings, and a passer by sees a continual shower of locusts' wings 
felling on the ground. At another time, when I was stationed at 
Fort Peddie, and the country was suifering from the effects of a 



108 



long drougbt, and was OTerrun with unuBual qaantities of ants and 
grsBshoppera, we were vieited by thousands of these birds, which 
remained many daye devouriiig these pests. Though the locust' 
birds are excellent eatiug, no one ever thinks of deetroying them ; 
and they are so feafleas that, though I often rode or ran amongst 
them to test their tanieneas, only a few in my immediate vicinity 
would rise, the rest continuing to feed ; bnt every ten minutes or so 
the whole mass would rise of tbeir own accord and fly, flrat a few 
yards to the right and then to tbe left, in a slanting direction, pre- 
senting alternately a black and white wave of birds some miles in 
length, a sight never to be forgotten by the spectator. 



265. Glakeola p 

coidioh pratikcolh 

An accidental visitor to tbe British isles. 



Vol. IV. PI. XLVI. 



Family TANTALID^. 

Genua FALcraELUja. 



Vol. IV. PI. XLVIT. 



266. Fai.cii'klliib iokecs . . , 
Olosst Inis. 
This bird has a wide range, being found in Europe, India, Africa, 
and Australia. Accidental in Britain. 



Family SCOLOPACID^. 

Under this family name I shall, lite Mr. Harting, include many 
forms of strand- and marsh-loving birds, beginning with theCurlews 
and ending with the Snipes. 

Genus Numenius. 

The birds of this form will bo found described in all general 
histories of birds under the trivial name of Curlews and Wbimbrelfl. 
One or other of the species are distributed over every country of the 
entire globe. In Britain we have two very distinct kinds, to which 
a third, a straggler from America, has just been added ; here, how- 
ever, it will only receive a passing notice. 

267. NuMEtrrcs aebuata Vol. IV. PI. XLVHI. 

CURIEW. 

Eesident and universally dispersed. lives much on the sea-shore 
during winter, and in summer resorts to heathery hills and wastes 
for the purpose of breeding. 



^^^ 



109 

268. NtmEsiTis PHLffloPCB Vol. IV. PI. XLIX, 

Whiubrbl. 

A Bpring and autuma -visitant, leaving ns at the former period 
for regions further north, -whither it proceeds to breed. 

269. NVUESIVB BORBALIS. 

Esquimaux Curle-w. 
This hird has been shot in this country about four times ; 
however, purely an Amerieaji Bp&ciea, it ie not figured. 

QenuB LoEOSA. 

Godwits, like Curlews, ore all but universdly dispereod over Hie 
aca-shores and marshes of every country, 

270. LiMOSA MELAHuai Vol. IV. PI. L. 

Black- TAILED Gonwir, 

Formerly used to breed in our marsheB, but now, owing to the 
progress of cultivation, cou only be regarded as a migrant. 

271. LiKosi KDi-A Vol. IT. PL LI. 

Bab- TAILED GoDwrr. 

A regular spring and aatumn migrant, going northward to breed, 
and returning aouthward in winter. 

Genus RBCTTRvmoaTKA. 

Of this highly interesting genus there are three well-marked 

Bpeeiea known : — the present, which ia common in Europe and 

Africa ; the second, wliieh is found in North America ; and the third, 

a beautifiil red-necked bird, is a native of Australia. 

272. KECtraviKosTBA avocbtta Vol. IV. PL MI, 

Ayocbt. 

Genus GtoiTia. 

273. Glottib ciKEscENs Vol. IV. PL LIII. 

Grb£HBEAKk. 

A spring and autumn migrant, breeding in Scotland, where of 
late years many nests have been discovered. 

Genus Totancs. 

274. ToTAHTis cAiiDMs VoL IV. PI. LIV. 

Kedshakk. 

Formerly a common roBident Bpecies in our fens, and breeding 



regfulariy in many parts of England. Drainnge and cultivation of 
■waste lands, however, have almost driven it from our Bhorea, except 
at the periods of its migration in spring and antumn. 

275. ToTAMUs Ftrsons Vol. IV. PL LT. 

Spotted Rbobhawi, 

In England and Scotland this bird ia generally regarded as a 
spring and autumn migrant ; and no instance of its nesting with ni 
has yet been recorded, notwithstanding that iudiridualfl of this species 
frequently remain here long onough in the spring to acquire their 
full Bummer plumage. In Ireland it is said to be very rare. 

276. ToTAJTOS ocsKOPiTs Vol. IV. PI. LVI. 

OsBEN Sandpitbb, 

Although strictly speaking this Sandpiper is only a spring and 
autumn migrant, examples are now and then obtained in winter, 
and it has even been reported to have nested in this country. This 
is by no means nnlikoly ; but its remarkable habit of depositing its 
eggs in the old nests of other birds at a considerable height from the 
ground, has no doubt caused it to be overlooked, 

277. ToiAsira olakeola Vol. IV. PI. LVIL 

Wood-Sam dpipbb. 

Like the last-named this species is most frequently observed at 
tho vernal and autumnal periods of migration ; but two or three in- 
stances of its nesting in Norfolk, Northumberland, and EEginshtro 
have been placed on record. 



Vol. IV. PI. Lvin. 



'278. ActiTia HTToturcos .... 
Sttmhee- Snipe. 
This well-known and graceful little Sandpiper, like others of the 
family, is a bird of double passage, and appears n ith great regularity 
every spring and autumn. Unlike other species, however, it does 
not always quit this country to find a nesting-place, but breeds 
regularly in the north of England, Wales, and Scotland, and less 
frequently in some parts of the south of England, 

279. Acirrrs MAOutAEri Vol. IV. PI. LIX, 

Spottbd Sabupiphb. 
An inhabitant of the northern continent of America, this bird can 
only be regarded as a rare straggler to Europe and the British 
Islands, whore it is reported to have been met with several times. 



Ill 



Genus Stbepsilas. 

280. Stkepsilas uttebpbes ....... Vol. IV. PL LX. 

TUKNSTQNB. 

Although a regular migrant to our shores, a few remain with us 
throughout the winter, and there is good ground for believing some 
breed within the British Islands. See Harting, 'Handbook of 
British Birds,Vp. 44; Gray, * Birds of West of Scotland;' and 
Thompson, 'Birds of Ireland,' vol. ii. p. 120. 

Genus Machetes. 

281. Machxtbs pvaNAX Vol. IV. PL LXI. 

B.TJPF and Beeve 

This bird formerly nested regularly^in the fens ; but, owing to the 
gradual drainage of their haunts, and undue persecution in the 
spring, very few now breed here, and that only in favoured localities. 
It is still, howler, a regular spring and autumn migrant. 

282. Machetes pxtgnax ^ Vol. IV. H. LXII. 

Eupp and B.eeve (first autumn plumage). 

Genus AcTmrRinsk 

283. AcTiTUETJs Babtramius Vol. IV. PL LXm. 

Babtbam's Sandpipeb. 

A rare straggler from the New World, which has been met with 
in England in three or four instances at rare intervals. 

Genus Tbtnchtes. 

284. TBTn^GtiTEs btjpescens . . . • . . Vol. IV. PL TiXTV. 

Bupf-bbeasted Sandptpeb. 

This is another wanderer from the American continent. It has 
been noticed, however, more frequently in this country than the last- 
named : Mr. Harting, in his ' Handbook of British Birds,' p. 138^ 
has given fifteen instances of its capture here. 

Genus Tbinga, 

285. TBiNaA cANtmrs VoL IV. PL LXV. 

Knot. 

Although a few of these birds may be found here throughout the 
winter, it is strictly speaking a spring and autumn migrant. 



Genua CiUBRis. 

"OixiDRis jleknaria Vol. IV. PL LXVI. 

Sandbrlisq, 
The Bame remark applies to this &a to the lafit-aamed. 

Genus Lihhocinclds. 

287. LmNocrNCLTTB PEcroBiais VoL IV. PI. LXVn. 

Pbctohal Sabdpieer. 

Like Bortram's Sandpiper nad the Soff-breaBted Sandpiper, thia 
bird, which is common tu both contineiitB of America, occaaionalljr 
finds its vray acroNa the hroad Atlantic, and a temporary home in thq 
country. According to Mr. Harting (' Handbook,' p. 140), Bome 
sisteen instances of its occurrence are on record. 

Oenos AsCXLOCHBTLTTB. 

288. Akctlochbiiot snaAHauATA .... Vol. IV. PI. LXVIII, 
Cttrlbw Sak»pipbb. 

Like many others of the Sandpipers, this bird is a regular spring 
and autumn migrant. The discovery of a nest in a tract of sedgy 
bog round the Loch of Spynie, near Elgin, on the 8th of June, 1853, 
has been recorded by Mr. R. Gray ia hia ' Birds of thfl Weat of 
Scotland,' 

Oenns Pslzsita. 

289. pKLinsA cnrcttTB Vol. IV. PI. LXIX. 

DinrLEN' (summer plumage). 

Although a resident Bpecies, the Dunlin is nevertheless migratory 
in spring and autumn. It breeds regularly in Scotland, the Hebrides, 
and Shetland ; and the nest has abo been found oD the moors of 
Northumberliind and Cornwall. 

2flO. Pblidma cnfCLtTB Vol. IV. PI LSX. 

DrxLiN (winter plum^e). 

291. pELiDBi BoNAPARiEi Vol. IV. PL LXXL 

BoNAPABTb's SiNDPrPBR. 

This American species, of which soma eight or nine examples 
have now been procured in this country, is probably more familiar to 
Enghsh readers by the name of Schinz's Sandpiper. It is now 
generally admitted, however, that the so-called Tringa or Pelidna 
Sdiinzii is merely a small variety or race of the Dunlin; and the 
appellation should therefore cease to be employed for the present 
speciea. 



113 

GcnilS ACTODROMAS. 

292. AcTODROMAs MiNirxA Vol. IV. PI. LXXII. 

Little Stint. 

This graceful little bird is a regular migrant, passing through 
this country in spring and autumn. It is always more numerous at 
the latter season, which seems to indicate that the species on going 
northward in the spring travels by another route than that which 
it traverses on its rctnm in autumn. 

293. ACTODROMAS PFSILLA. 

American Little Stint. 

An American Little Stint (A. ptisUla, Wilson) has twice been 
met with in England. In October 1853 a specimen was shot on 
Harazion Marsh, Cornwall ; and in September 1869 a second was 
obtained on Northam Burrows, Devon. 
. This purely American bird has not been figured. 

Genus Leimonites. 

294. Leimonitbs Tbmminckii .... Vol. IV. PI. LXXIII. 

Tehminck's Stint. 

This little Sandpiper, although of rarer occurrence than the last 
named, visits this country nevertheless regularly in spring and 
autumn. It appears, however, to be almost confined to England^ 
for it has been met with only once in Scotland, and once in 
Ireland. 

Genus Arqfatella. 

295. Abqxtatella maritima Vol. IV. PI. LXXIV. 

Purple Sandpiper. 

Throughout the greater part of the British Islands this bird is 
chiefly known as a winter visitant ; and although it has been ob- 
served late in spring in the Hebrides, and presumably breeding there, 
ho one has yet been fortunate enough to discover a nest there. 

Genus Limicola. 

296. Limicola pyom^a Vol. IV. PI. LXXV. 

Broab-billeb Sandpiper. 

An inhabitant of Northern Europe and Asia ; this little bird moves 
southward at the approach of winter, and in four or five instances 
has strayed far enough towards the west to touch the English 
shore. 

In every instance in which specimens have been obtained here, 
save one, the locality was the coast of Norfolk. The exceptional 
capture was made in Belfast Bay many years ago. 

I 




Sniph, 



In Mr. Harting'a ' Handbook of British Birds ' (p. 144) no lesa 
Ihnn fifteen instances are given of the occurrence of tliia North' 
American species in England and Scotland. In every case, so far 
as cna be ascertained, the specimens were procnred in autumn, in- 
dicating that thoir presence hero is in some way dependent upon 
a divergence from the route of their migration southward. 

Tinder tho terms Seo!opa.v, Galliruii/o, and Limnocryplei those mem- 
bers of the tiTic Snipes which do not visit Britain have heem. figured. 
They form part of a group of universal diatrihution. 



Genus Scolopax. 



. ScoiopiX 
Woodcock. 



Vol. IV. PI. LXXVIT. 



This well-known species of late years has become so much m 
numerouB here as a resident, that although numbers sHll migrala 
to this eoantry in the autumn, it is difficult to say whether " the 
first cock of the season " is an early arrival or a home-bred bird. 



Genus CrAiLiyioo. 

299. Ualusaoo major Vol. IV. PI. LXSVIIL 

Oeeat Snipe. 

Altbongh this species dues not, like tlic next, breed in this 
country, it visits us regularly evciy autumn, hut always earlier 
than docs the Common Snipe ; and its occurrence during ihe spring 
months is rare. 



Vol. IV. P]. LXXIX. 



300. G.tLLiNAoo BcoiorAcisA . . 
Common Snipe. 

A regular winter visitant ; hut in favourjiblc localities many an- 
nually remain to nest and rear their young. 

With regard to the so-called Sabine's Snipe, it is now gonemlly 
regarded as a melanifira of the common species, but is of sufficiently 
rare occmTenoe to atract notice. In the ' Field ' of Dec. 10, 1870, 
appeared a list to that date of all tho known examples which had 
been obtained, since which time two or three others have been 
killed in tho south of England, and, for the first time, one recently 
in Scotland. Mr. Brydges WiUinma's specimen woa shot at Cam&n- 
toa, Cornwall, in Jonuorj- 18(ia, As to this, aco ' Zoologist,' 1802, 
pp. 78S3 and 7938. 



115 

301. Gallinago kussata. 
}lD3set Snipe, 

TWfi remarkable Snipe, which often weighs six ounces, not nn- 
frequently occurs in our markets. Mr. Rodd, of Penzance, and sports- 
men generally, often speak of this bird when writing to a friend, 
asking its name &c. The term russata will be found mentioned 
in the folio edition in the letterpress to the Common Snipe. 

• 

Genus Limnoceitptes. 

302. LlMNOCRTPTES GALLINULA Vol. IV. PI. LXXX. 

Jack Snipe. 

Although iQ8taQC^s are on record in which this bird has bee^ met 
with in this cpii^try in summer, there is no sufficiept evidence of it^ 
haying bred here, and it must continue to be regarded as a regular 
wi|lt^r Tisiti^nt 

The generic t^rms Phalaropus and Lohijjyes have been instituted 
for the fairy-like Phalaropes, of which there are three species, two 
of which frequent Britain. 

(7eni|3 PHAjiAROPre. 

303. PHALABOPrS PULICABITTS . . . . . Vol. IV. PI. LXXXI. 

Obet Phalabope (summer plumage). , 

This beautiful little bird has of late years been noticed as a 
regular autumn visitant, occasionally appearing in considerable 
numbers. It is remarkable that although flocks pass through 
England in the autumn (when the species is moving southward for 
the winter), none are seen here on the return journey in spring, 
which sh()ws that they go back by a different route. 

304. PHAlABOPrS FXTLICABITTS .... Vol, IV. PI. JiXXXII. 

Gbet Phalabope (winter plumage). 

Genus Lobipes. 

SOS. Umifm ^tpeebobeus ..... Vol. IV, PI. LXXXIII, 
Ebd-necxed Phalabope. 

In England this graceful little bird is an occasional winter visi- 
taiit. Never seen in such numbers as the last named, but generally 
singly or in pairs. It has been found breeding in Orkney, the 
Hebrides, Perthshire, Inverness, and Sutherland j but in Ireland it 
appears to be unknown. 

i2 



Genua FvLiCk. 

Coots nro so generally dispersed over tbe globo aa to render it 
difficult to Bay where one or otlior of the flCtoen species are not to 
be met with. 

306. FuLici ATBA Vol. lY, PI. LXXXIT. 

Coot. 
Thia well-known apeciea, although generally regarded as a resi- 
dent, ia nevertheless migratory to a certain extent in autamii, and 
asaembles often in lai^e flocks in the winter, in our estuaries and 
tidal harbours. 

GeniB GALLQnjLv. 

Like the Coot, the members of tbe genus Gallinuht are very gene- 
rally dispersed over both tbo Old and tbe New World. 

307. GAiLiNtn-.i cnLoRDPCs Vol. IV. PI, LXXXV. 

MOOBHES, 

Of this familiar bird it wili saifioc to say that it is resident and 
generally distiibntod. 

GoTiiis EAr.T.na. 



108. lliXLus f^vi-Ticvs Vol. IV. PI. LXXXVr. 

■WAIEK-li-lIE. 

There can be no doubt that, although many birds of this speciea 
■cniain with us throughout the year, eonsiderable additions to thrii 
lumbers are made in the spring. 



Allied iu form and very similar in distribution to tbe three fore- 
going and the next folloiving genera. 

309. CiiKS ra-A.rEsais Vol. IV. PI. LXXXVIL 

Lanb-Hmi, or CoRN-CitAKE. 

A regular summer migrant ; but occasioiially individuals have beea 
found loitering behind and spending the winter with ua in sheltered 
situations. 

liemis PoiiZA.NA. 

310. PORZANA MARITKTTA Vol. IV. PI. LXXXVIII. 

SpOTTEn Cl'.Mil-!. 

Whatever may have been the caac formerly, when our fens wore 



117 

the regular nesting-haunts of this and many other marsh-loving 
birds, the Spotted Crake can now only be considered a spring end 
autnmn migrant, occasionally remaining to breed in favourable' 
situations. 

311. PORZANA PYGMiEA Yol. lY. PI. LXXXIX. 

Baillon's Cbakb. 

This little bird has so frequently been met with in England and 
at almost every season of the year, that an enumeration of particular 
localities for it is unnecessary. It may be regarded as a local resi- 
dent. It has, however, been only obtained once in Scotland and 
once in Ireland. 

312. POBZANA MINUTA Yol. lY. PI. XC. 

Olivaceotts Crake. 

Almost the same remark will apply to this as to the last-named 
species, although the seasons at which it has been generally met 
with seem to indicate that it is a spring and autumn migrant. 



ORDER NATATORES. 

In this order Yigors and others have included all the swimming 
birds — Geese, Swans, the two great divisions of the Ducks, Mer- 
gansers, Cormorants, Auks, Grebes, Penguins, Divers, Gulls, Terns, 
and Petrels. Their distribution is almost universal, the icy poles 
being the only part of the globe from which they are absent. 

If we institute a comparison between the ornithological produc- 
tions of the diflferent parts of the earth's surface, we find that water- 
birds are much more rife in some countries than others, and that 
they are more numerous in the northern than in the southern hemi- 
sphere ; and if we compare those frequenting the area of the British 
Islands and the surrounding seas and fresh waters with those fre- 
quenting a similar extent of any other portion of the globe, we shall 
fiid a greater variety of forms than elsewhere, due doubtless to the 
peculiar position of our islands, lying as they do between the two 
great northern continents, and to a certain extent under the influence 
of the Gulf-stream. 

■ I now proceed to the enumeration of the species contained in the 
fifth volume, and commence with the Geese, two or three of which 
grace our wolds and marshes. 



Subfamily ANSERINjE. 
In round numbers about thirty species of Geese are now known 



118 

to oraitlinlngistB. They admit of being divided iuto many geners, 
of whieli Cereopaia, Ansei; and Nttlnpus are conspicuously diatinot 
from eaoli otlicr ; it is, howcyer, with tte genera Anser and Barnida 
only, or trufGooso, that TTe hare to do with in the ' Birds of Great 
Britain.' 

Genua Akser. 

313. Ansbh FELtus Vol. V. PI. L 

Gbey LiG Goose. 

A atationaiy epocioa. Breeds in many parte oi Scotland anil 
Ireland. The original of our Common Goose, 

314. ASSEB 8BGETUM Vol. V. PI. ll, 



the vostom than the oosten 

. . . . voi.v. M. m. 



A winter visitant. More common 
parts of Scotland and England. 

315. AssBR BBicnTHHTNcuuB . . , 
PiKK-FooTEn Goose, 

A winter visitJint, arriving from tho north in autumn ; plentiful 
in the wolds of Yorkshire at that season, 

316. Anser AiBiFKOBs Vol. V. PI. IV. 

White-fbonibd Goobe, 

This is also a winter visitant to the British Islands, 

317. AlTSEE ^QTPTIACUB, 

Egyptian Goose. 
Supposed hy some to he an occasional visitor, hy others that those 
which are occasioually seen are atray indiyiduals bom some domestic 



318. Akseh iLHAins. 
Casain's Snow-Gooae. 

Seo Howard Saundcra, in tho ' Proceedings of the Zoological 
Society of London,' Maroli 1&72, for an account of two specimcus of 
this bird killed in Wexford Harbour in November ISTl. 

Genus Bebhici-a. 

319. BBMnOLA LEUCOF8I9 Vol. V. PL V. 

Berkiclr Goose. 

Plentiful in winter, keeping to certain districts on the flat shores 
of LancaBhiro. Eetirca nortliward beyond our eountiy to breed. 

320. Bbrsicla ciNAnENstK. 
Canada Goose. 

Thiabii'dis swd to have occurred wild inKngland; it being purely 
American, I have not figured it. 



119 

321. B^BirtOLA RiTFicoLtia YoL V. PL YI. 

Red-breasted Goo»e, 

An inhabitant of northern Russia and Siberia, and a chauco visi- 
tant to Britain. 

822. Beri^icea brenta Yol. Y. H. VII. 

Brent Goose. 

Plentiful in winter on the muddy flats at the mouths of rivers 
from the Thames to the Tamar; equally numerous in a northerly 
direction, including Ireland. 

Subfamily CYGNIN^. 

'■ Of this subfamily there are nine or ten species — ^three or four of 
which pertain to the fauna of Great Britain, two or three to that of 
North America, the celebrated Black-necked Swan of Chili, and the 
31ack Swan of Australia. 

323. Cyoots olor Yol. Y. PI. VIII. 

lixjTB Swan. 

Supposed to be still living in a wild state in Eastern Europe ; 
strictly stationary in Britain. 

324. CrGNirs fertjs Yol. Y. PI. IX. 

Wild Swan, or Whooper. 

A winter visitant, arriving in autumn and departing in spring, to 
breed in Ireland and many parts of the arctic circle. 

325. CreNirs minor Yol. Y. PL X. 

Bewick's Swan. 

This is also a winter visitor, arriving in autumn and retiring 
northwards in spring. 

326. CroNus ihmittabilis. 

Polish Swan. 

Ornithologists are at variance as to the propriety of considering 
this bird a distinct species from C, olor, the difference between 
them being but trifling. The Polish Swan is a somewhat larger 
bird, with a sm&ller frontal knob, whUe the naked space between 
the 1)111 and the eye is larger; and the feet are grey instead of olive- 
black. Mr. Bartiett has weighed several Polish Swans living at the 
Zoological Gardens, which turned the scale of twenty-seven pounds; 
and he assures me they would be two pounds heavier after moulting. 
He considers there are tangible differences between the two birds ; 
and I must confess I do also since I have been able to make some 



120 

Dliecrrations on a fine exomplc recently that, as detailed in tl;c 
folloiviug note sent to me by Tiscount Holmesdale : — 

HuusehLU, Nnini, N.B., 
Sept. SSlh, 1873. 
De\e Mil. GocxD, — 1 send yon a bii'd ivliith I believe to be a 
Polisli Swun. First a pair and then three others camo to a wild 
loch by Iho sea hero in the northerly galea we have had lately. 
The keeper took Ihem to bo co-miaon "Whoopers ; and wo went out 
ye.sterdiiy and etalkcd them. Whoopers they certninly arc not ; but 
they answer exactly to Ibe description of the Polish Swan in 
Yarrell : ash-grey legs ond feet small ; tnhercle at base of bill and 
the blaek of the noGtrtls well divided from the base. If tbia is so, 
it may be of interest to you ; and Colonel ISaillie hopes you will 
accept the bird. If, after all, we are wrong as to the species, it may 
be of interest from the ciilinury point of view. 

Yours very faithfnllj', 

H0LUEBnAI.E. 

The very fine specimen ahore alluded to is now mounted in tho 
British Museum; and T bavo a note on its dissection from Professor 
Owen, who states " the Swon was a young male, testes very smsll, 
flesh tender and good euting." 

If the young of tliia bird ia always white from its downy sfato 
upwards, it is a remarkable characteristic, and one that will tend 
to confirm the propriety of considering it a species. 
The weiglit of thie indiWdunl was 24| lbs, 

n. in. 

Across tho wings, from tip to tip 7 (i 

Total length, from tip of bill to end of tnil 4 9 

Tip of bill to comer of the eye 5^ 

Tip of bill to base 4 

Bill deep reddish flesh-eolour, with a tolerably well- developed 
knob and broad triangular space between the bill and the eye. 
Breadth of the black space, including the part behind the knob, 2 
inches. Eye dork brown. 

Feet olive-grey, even to the joints ; interdigital membranes 
darker. Length of true tarsi 4J inches ; bare space above tho 
joint 1^ inch; middle toe and nail Oj inches; breadth of iho foot 
()| inches. 

Having disposed of the Geese and Swans, wc naturaUy turn to 
the true grass-feeding Ducks, after which will be noticed those spe- 
cies which almost exclusively feed under the surface of the water — ' 
the Fuligulinte &e. ' 

Snbfamay ANATIN.<E. 
Genus Tadoena. 
An Old-World group of five or six species. 



121 

327. Tadobna vxtlpanser . . Vol. V. PI. XI; 

Sheldbake. 

A stationary species, breeding in the holes of warrens and sandy 
wastes by the sea-side. 

• Genus Oasabca. 

328. Casabca butila Vol. V. PI. XII. 

Rtody Sheldrake. 

An occasional and very rare visitant. Among other places, builds 
in rocks on the borders of the Mediterranean. 

Genus Mabeoa. 

A genus of which our common Widgeon is the type, and of which 
an allied species is found in North America and another in Chili. 

32d. Mabeca PENELOPE ........ Vol. V. PI. XTTT. 

Widgeon, 

A migrant which is plentiful in winter, and sometimes, but not 
yery regularly, stays to breed in England and Scotland. 

330. Mabeca AMEBicANA. 
American Widgeon. 

An occasional visitant to England. It is not figured. 

Genus Spatula. 

A well-defined form, comprising about six species, one being found 
in Australia, another in New Zealand, others in Chili, and the rest 
in the northern hemisphere of both the Old and New Worlds. 

331 . Spatula clypbata Vol. V. PI. XIV. 

Shovelleb DrcK. 

Frequent in summer, sometimes breeds. 

Genus Anas. 

The Wild Duck, which is the tjrpe of this genus, is generally 
difiiised over Asia, Africa, and North America. 

332. Anas boschas Vol. V. PI. XV. 

Mallabd, or Wild DrcK. 

• Resident, and breeds everywhere. The supposed parent of all 
our domestic breeds of Ducks. 

Genus QuEBQirEDTJLA. 

A genus formed for the Teal and Garganey and some allied species 
in other parts of the world. 



-i 



333. quebqcedula checca . . , . 
Teal. 
Common, reBident, breeds oveiywlier 



. . Vol. V. n XVI. 



334. QuEEauEDTTLA ciEciA -, . Vol. V. PI. XVn. 

GiEQilfEr. 

A spring and autumn migrant, occasionally reraaiuiiig in the 
Bummer (o breed. 

GenUs Dafiu. 

Formed for tho reception of our Trell-knoivn Pin-tailed and two 
or three 8outh-Amorican species of elegantly formed Ducks. 

335. Dapila iciTTi Vol. V. PI. XVIXI. 

PlK-TAIlED DttCK. 

A Trinter visitant, arriring in sufflcient numbers to be regarded 
as common. 

OcnuB Chaitlelasmits. 
The bird chaxacterized under this term is almost tho sole type ot 
the genus. 

336. CHATTLELiSMUS BIREPEfli Vo!. V, PI. XIX. 

A somewhat rare winter visitant , 



In Britain there are two species of this genus; in North jVmcrica 
there arc others, and others again in Auatralia. 

337. NrnocA pbrina Vol. V. PI, XX. 

POCHARn, 

A winter visitant, frequently taken in our decoys, and tho flesh 
held in some esteem aa representing the celebrated CanTae-backed 
Buck of Ameiiea. 



338. NmocA lbccophthalmos Vol. V. PI. XXI. 

"WHrrE-BYBD or FEEBitaiNoga Duck, 
A spring visitor, almost exclusively so in England, but unkuomt 



A fine form, the native country of which is Eflstorn Europe and 
India. 



123 

339. BfiANTA BT7FINA . Vol. V. PI. XXII. 

EeD-CB£STED Dvc£. 

The occurrence of this bird in England is very seldom and nncer* 
tain ; still there lire manj British specimens extant. 

Subfaihlly FtJIIGUlIN^. 

The birds of this subfamily, or the Diving Ducks, form an exten- 
sive grotip^ Ineihbers of which are found in most parts of the globe, 
and which is well represented in the British Islands. 

GeflLtis I'uLtotnA, 

340. FULIGULA CRISTATA Vol. Y. PI. XXIII. 

TxTPtED DtJCK. 

A tolerably common winter visitant to the British tslatids j many 
imnain to breed on the lakes at Clumber and Osberton in Notting- 
hamshire, and doubtless on other similar sheets of watef * 

341. FuLIGirLA MABILA Vol. Y. PI. XXTY. 

ScATjp Duck. 
A winter visitant. 

Genus Ekicoketta* 

A genus established for the fine Steller's Duck, a species nearly 
allied to the Eiders. 

342. Ekiconetta Stellbbi ....... Vol. V. Pi. XXY. 

SXSLLE&'S DrcK< 

An accidental visitor to the northern parts of Britain ; its native 
countries are Lapland, northern Scandinavia, and Eussia. 

Genus Somateria. 

Of the Eiders, a very natural and distinct group of Dilcks, 
there are but four or five species, inhabiting the northei*n pottions 
of both the Old and the New World. 

343. SOMATBEIA MOLLISSIMA ....#. Yol. Y. PI. XXYl. 

Eedeb Duck. 

Stationary. Breeds on the Earn Islands and many other similar 
situations round our northern coasts. 

344. Somatebia spectabilis . . . . . Yol. Y. PL XX YH. 
King Duck. 
A rare and accidental visitor from the north. 



Goniia OiDEMiA. 

The members of this little division of Iho Diving Ducks are ren- 
dered remarkalilo by their relvety black covering, as well as the 
bright colouring of some of the soft parts, partioularlj- of the bill 
and the naked portions of the head of one species. They arc striclly 
dciiizeiiB of the eolt ■waters, resorting to freshwater lakes only for 
the purpose of breeding, 

345. OiBEMiA SI6IU. Vol. Y. PI. XXVm. 

SCOTEE. 

1 winter ; a fair number stay to 

346. OiDEMii FTOCi Tol. V. PI. XXIX. 

VELVITr ScOTEE. 

A common winter bird in the Ojkney and Shetland Islands ; soli- 
tary individuals have been killed on the Thames and even further 
south, 

347. OlDEWIA rUHSPICILLATA. Vol, V. PI. XXX, 

SnEF-ScoTEB, 
Quite an occidental \'iBitor from the coasts of North America ; has 
been killed about ten times in Britain. 



Genus CLANOTTii. 

The Golden-eye, Barrow's Duck, and the Buffle-hcadcd Duck ara 
about the only members of this genus; like several of the pre- 
ceding forms they seek their food at the bottom of the shallow parts 
of the seasj the inlets of rivers, &c. 

348. CLA»otn.A BLACciou Vol. V. PI, SXXI. 

GoLDEIf-EYli. 

A true winter visitant, said to have once found a breeding -phco 
on Loch Assynt in Sutherland. Breeds in Lapland. 

Clangcla albeola. 
340, Buffle-hcadcd Duck. 

This Americnn bird having been killed foiu- or five times in Eng- 
land, some have included it in our .ivifauna; and so do I, but with- 
out figuring it. 

Genus Histriosicus. 
The fantastically marked Harlecjuin Duck is the type and only 
known species of this genus. 



125 

350. HisTRiONicus TOEQUATUs Vol. V. PL XXXII. 

Harlequin Duck. 

A very rare visitant to Britain ; and when examples do occur, they 
are either females or young males of the first year. 

Genus Habelda. 
A northern form of a single species. 

351. Habelda glacialis ...... Vol, V. PI. XXXIII. 

Long-tailed Dttck. 

A common winter visitant ; arrives in the Scottish firths in great 
abundance during the months of autumn. 

Subfamily MERGINiE. 

The Mergansers are a very distinct family, differing in structure 
and mode of life from the Ducks or Cormorants, to which othermse 
they are nearly allied. They live on the waters of both the Old 
and the New World, and consist of about ten species. 

352. Mergits castor Vol. V. PL XXXIV. 

Goosander. 

A winter bird, frequenting our lakes when they are not frozen 
over ; very^ destructive to freshwater fish. Always to be seen at . 
Clumber in autumn and winter, goes "north in summer . 

353. Mergus serrator Vol. V. PL XXXV. 

Merganser. 

Found in Britain at all seasons ; common in the north of Scot- 
land. 

354. Mergtts cfcullatus Vol. V. PL XXXVI. 

Hooded Merganser. 

An American species, which has occasionally been found in Europe 
and Britain. 

355. Mergfs albellfs Vol. V. PL XXXVII. 

Smew, or Nun. 

A winter bird, rather scarce. Breeds in Lapland and the adjoin- 
ing countries. 



Family PODICIPIDJS. 

When the birds of the world are taken in review, it is in- 
teresting to note that certain forms are restricted to very limited 



1 



ttieas, while others arc as widely distributed. It is io the h.ttet 
category that tlie Grebes or members of this family pertain ; Sor my 
experience tends to prove that one or other of the numerous species 
are found throughout the entire globe ; even in the islands of the 
South Pacific they aro to be met with, and also all over North and 
South America. They do not appear to be hmiteJ by elevation, bat 
tenant the lowest waters and the highest lakes, one of the finest 
being an inhabitant of the celebrated Lake of Titicaca in fern. 
Grebes are characterized by a peculiarity of structure which enablefl 
them to chase the nimble fishes and other aquatic creatures midep 
water in a difieront manner from other birds. They construct 
their floating nests on the lakes ; and the eggs arc frequently in- 
cubated in the water. Although divided into many genera, thosa 
inhabiting Britain have been retained in the genus Podieept. 

350. PoDicTTs cBisr.iTtra Vol. V. PL SXXVin. 

Gkjut Crested Ghebe. 
A summer resident, breeding ou many of our largo latea and 
inland waters. 

357. PoDiCEPs BUBiucoLLis Tol. V. PI. XlSXIX. 

Bsn-irECEED Grebe. 
An occasional visitor, not rare on the east coast in the winter 



358. PoniCEPs atjeitus Vol. V. PI. XL. 

HOENED GbEBE. 

A chance visitor to Pritain, nioet common in its immature and 
winter plumage ; inhabits Sweden, Lapland, and other countrieB to 
the northward of our islands. 

359. PoDicEPs NiGKicoiLis Yol. V. PI. XLI. 

Eabeb Geebe. 

More numerous than the last ; somotimes found on the eBBtem 
hroflds in its finest state of plumage. One of its native countries is 
Spain ; it is also abundant in Northern Africa, and but seldom, I 
imagine, found so far north as the Baltic. Probably unknown to 
LinnEBus. 

360. PoniCF-rs mikok Tol. V. PI. XLTI. 

LrrTT.E Gkebe, or DiBtmcK. 

i:A resident, stationary, and universally distributed species. 



Family COLYMBIDyE. 
\ The Divers, unlike the Grehes, are only found in the noriLcm 



127 

hemisphere. They frequent the countries bordering on the aretie 
circle, and are as abundant in America as in Europe and Asia. In 
Britain we have three distinct species. 

361. COLTMBUS GLACIALIS ..,.,.. Vol. V. PI. XLIII. 
G]iE4T JTOBTHEKN DiVER. 

One of the finest of our native birds, but does not breed with us. 

362. colticbvb abcticus vol. v. pi. xliy. 

Black-throated Diveb. 

This may be considered i^ resident species, although it is but 
sparingly observed at any time. In winter the young are frpquei^t 
along our southern coasts, while in summer most of the northeni lochs 
of Scotland have each its breeding pair of birds — among other places, 
Loch-y-vraon and Loch Drome in Bross^shire^ part of the fine 
property of John Fowler, Esq. 

363. COLTMBUS SEPTEKT»IOirAJ.IS . . • . . Vol. V. PI. XLV« 

Eed-thboated Diveb. 

like the last a resident species, breeding in the same parts of the 
eountry. 

Family ALCAD^. 

Fonnerjly Britain could boast of having $ve species of this f^ 
markable family of northern sea-birds ; but the jfmest of them, the 
Great Auk, is now gone from the face of the waters ; and if it is still 
ennmeratedjin the present work, it is because we cherish the re- 
collection of so singular a bird. 

Genus Alca. 

364. Alca impennis Vol. V. PI. XLVI. 

Great Auk. 

365. Alca torda , . • , Yol. V. PI. XLVII, 

Bazorbill. 

A covfmon cliff bird, breeding j^l round our coa^ts^ ap4 ^ eonstazit 
resident on our seas. 

Genus Ubia. 

366. XJbia troile Vol. V. PI. XLVJU. 

CoMi^oN Guillemot. 

Like the last very numerously dispersed round the whole of the 
islands and islets of Britain ; breeds on the rocks ; lays but a single 



387. Urta ortlle Vol. V. PL XUX. 

Black Gtiii.LEMOT, 
A reBideat apocios, often breediag in company with the last ; lavs 
two eggs. 

Genua JlERGOLva. 

368. MEBouma alle 

Lrm>; Anc. 
Sometimca abimdajit with us in wintei', while i: 
gaged in breeding within the arctic circle. 



Genus FRATEKcriA. 



Vol. V. PL L 

lib en* 

Vol. V. PL LL 



Numerous among our aea-bounded rocks in summer, and in 
winter may bo found fishing ia the bays and shallow portions of oui 
seas. 

Family PBLICANID^, 

Huhfamily GRACULIN^. 

That portion of this family forming the Cormorants comprises 

about thirty speeiea. They are spread over the rocky sea-ahores of 

the entire globe, with the exception of the ice-bonnd Poles. Fu 

Britain we have two species. 



370. p£ 



. V, PL LTL 



371. Phalacbocohax oaACPura Vol. V. PL LIII. 

Crested Cobmobant, or Shag. 

Also a constant frequenter of every part of the British coasts, 
where it annually breeds. 

Subfamily SULAltlN.^. 

The Gaunoto form a amall section of the Pelicanidie. They are 
truly oceanic in their Iiabits ; And nro almost as widely distributed as 
the Cormorants. In. species, however, they are far less numerous, 
only six or seven being known ; and should the AustraUan bird be 
ultimately proved to be identical with our own, then the numbet 
will bo still less. 

372. ScLA DABSANA . * Vol. V. PL LTV. 

Gannet, or Solan Goose, 

I must refer my readers to tho body of the work for full 



129 

informatioii respecting this predaceoi^s bird, for it would be out of 
place to enter into particulars here in what can only be regarded as 
a mere list of the species inhabiting Britain. I may mention, how- 
ever, that its specific name is derived from one of its breeding- 
places, to which may be added Lundy Island, Ailsa Craig, St. Edlda, 
Suliskerry in Orkney, &c. 



Family LARIDiE. 

Mr. Harting, in his * Handbook of British Birds,' has included the 
GuUs and Terns in the . same family, with which view I acquiesce, 
for it would be diflScult to draw the line between the termination of 
the one and the commencement of the other. Whether we regard 
the Gulls, Terns, and Skuas separately or collectively, they may be 
described as coast-wanderers over the entire globe, but more abun- 
dant in the northern than in the southern hemisphere. Their 
principal food is fish, crustaceans, and other marine animals, but 
some of them readily eat worms, insects, and garbage. In their 
plumage they are perhaps the most cleanly of all birds, always 
•maintaining their pure and delicate tints- unsullied. There are over 
one hundred species inhabiting various parts of the globe. 



Subfamily LARIl^iE. 

Genus Labus. 

The members of this genus comprise all the large GuUs — birds 
which, as scavengers] alone, play an important part in keeping a 
wholesome atmosphere. They also prey upon fish, crustaceans, 
small mammals, and weakly birds. 

373. Labus varinus ....,,..• Vol. V. PI. LV. 
Gbeat Blacz-baczed Gull. 

A resident species, breeding round our coasts. 

374. Labits fusctts Vol. V. PL LVI. 

Lessbb Black-backed Gttll. 

Also a resident and breeding species. 

375. Labtjs GLAiTcirs Vol. V. PI. LVTI. 

Glaucous Gull. 

A bird of the northern hemisphere generally, whence it is driven 
southward on the approach of winter, at which season it arrives 
here, as well as in sioular latitudes in America. 

K 



376. LiHTTS isLiNOiCTTB YoL V. PI, LVin, 

ICRLAKD GdXL. 

A beaatiful species belonging to the regions of the arctic circle, 
but frequently coming hither in winter, where it finds a more bear- 
able climate. 

377. Laot3 aksbktatos Yol. V. PI. LIS. 

Sebbino- Gull . 

A bird we may coll our own, eince it always eulirens our seas and 
rocks, especially at the breeding-season. 

378. LAHns caftts Vol. V. PI. IX 

Common GirLt. 
A native species, abundant both in summer and winter. 

Genus iUsB.^. 
Established for our pretty Kittiwaie. 

379. Ek9a laroAcmi Vol. V. PL LXL 

KinrwASE. 
A local resident. 

Genus Paoophila. 

380. PAOoprntA ebuenba Vol. Y. PI. T.XTT . 

Itohy Guu,. 

Abundant at Bpitzbei^en and many parts of Greenland. Here in 
Britain it is rare, and quite accidental in its occurrence. 

Genus Beodostethia. 

Established for the beautiful Gull named after Captain James 
Boss, the celebrated navigator. 

381. Rhodostethia Bosbii Vol. V. PI. LXUI. 

Eflsa'a GuiL. 

Has been killed two or three times in Britain. The Plate should 
be referred to to form a just idea of this faiiy Gull, whose natural 
home is within the arctic circle. 

Genus CEffloicocEPHALus. 

The members of this section of the Gnlls have many pleasing 
traits in their character ; thus they have the habit of spending 
' i large communities, and of selecting as a site for 



131 

their breeding-place the inland waters of some marsh or swampy 
island in the interior of the country. Their interest is also much 
added to by the cireumstance of their being subject to seasonal 
changes in the colouring of their plumage. 

382. Chkoicocbphalus KmiBXTirDiTs .... Vol. V. PI. LXIV. 
Black-headed Gull. 
A common and resident species. 

333. Chboicocephaltjs Philadelphia . . • . Vol. V. PL LXV 
Bonapabte's Gull. 
An occasional visitant from its native country^ North America. 

Genus HTDROcoLffius. 
Instituted for our well-known Little Gull. 

384. Htdboccl(etjs MnnTTrrs Vol. V. PI. LXVI. 

Little Gull. 

A tolerably regular winter visitant, never breeding in Britain. 

Genus Xema. 

The beautiful arctic Gull named after the late Mr. Sabine is the 
type of this genus. 

385. Xema Sabini Vol. V. PI. LXVn. 

Sabuhs's Gull. 

An occasional visitor to our islands. 



Subfamily STEEMN-a;. 

In this subfamily are contained the various forms of Terns or Sea- 
Swallows as they are popularly termed. Ten species are figured 
under six genera: — Hydroprogne, Actochelidon, Sterna, SUmvJa, 
Gelochelidon, and Hydrochelidon. 

Genus Htdbopbogne. 

386. Hydbopbogne caspia . . ^ . . . Vol. V. PL LXVIII. 

Caspian Tebw. 

An accidental visitor. 

il2 



. AcrrocniiiJDON cANinci .... 
Sis aw I CH Tehk. 

r visitant and breeding bird. 



Swift-flying Tem. 
A specimen of this bird is said to have t 
(Bee Blake Enox in the 'Zoologist' for 1866 
bird, and tberefore not figured, 

GenuB Stehsa. 



Vol. V. PL LXIX 



in killed in Ireland 
Strictly an eastern 



Vol. V. PI. LXS. 



389. SrnRKi HiKtTHDO 

Common Tebk. 
A resident species. Breeds in many parts of our sontliem coasts. 



3S0. SlEHNi PifiAMSEA Vol. V. PL LXXI. 

EOSEAIE TeBN. 

r visitant. Breeds sparingly on the Scilly and Fame 



391. SiSKHA MACSDEA Vol. V. PL LXXII. 

Arctic Tern, 
A resident species, breeding abundantly around our northeni 



392. Sterna rtiLioiKosi. 
Sooty Tem. 
A bird of almost universal distribution. Britain has occasionally 
been favoured with ita visits ; still there are few who would give it 
more than a passitif^ notice in any list of the British birds. One 
was shot at "Wallin^ord, on the banks of the Thames, on the 2l8t 
of June, 1809, and kindly sent for my inspection before it was 
skinned by Mr. iTamea Gardner, Jun., of Holbom and Oxford 
Street. 



Genus Stbbntji.a. 



, SteENTTLA MINtTTA 

LnTLB Teen. 



Vol, V. PL Lxxni. 



r visitor. Broods at Dungeneas and i 
of the south coast of England. 



133 

GellllS GSLOCHELIDOK. 

394. Gelochslidok as^guca. Vol. Y. PL LXXIY. 

Gxrur-BiLLSD Tbrf. 

A bird of the eastern portion of Europe, Africa, and Asia, and 
quite an accidental yisitant to Britain. 

Grenus Htdbochelidoit. 

The members of this genu9 frequent marshes for the purpose of 
breeding, and deposit their eggs in regular-formed nests of herbage. 
The entire group consists of about ten species, which are widely 
distributed over tiie globe. 

895. HrDBocHELiDOir nigra . . . * . . Vol. V. PI. LXXV. 

Black Tebit. 

A summer visitant, breeding in several of the marshes of 
England. 

396. HrDBOCHELiDdir i.BucotTi!BA . . • . Vol. V. PI. LXXVI. 

White-winged Tebn* 

An accidental visitor from countries to the south-eastward of our 
islands. 

397. Htdbocheltdon letjcopareia . • • Vol. V. J?L LXXVII. 
Whiskered Tebn. 

An accidental visitor from Eastern Europe. 

> • I 

Genus Anous. 

398. AnOITS STOLIDUS. 

Noddy Tern. 

A bird common to many seas ; it is not therefore surprising that 
a solitary individual has now and then wandered to fish in our 
waters. It is a common species, very generally known, consequently 
not figured. 

Subfamily STERCORAEIIN^i 

Genus STERCORARItJS. 

Parasitic Gulls are to a certain extent affined to the Petrels, and 
for this reason have been placed next them in the present volume. 
Members of this group, which are eight or ten in number, frequent 
the seas of both hemispheres, are tyrants of the ocean, waging war 
and domineering over all the birds, and robbing them of the fish 
they have taken. 



309. BrEECOEARHia cataeehactes 
Gbeat Skda, 
Found all round our seas at on( 
the Orkaeya. 



Vol. T. PL LXXVnL 
or the other. Breeds in 

. Tol. V. PI. T.YYTT. 



400. Stekcobabitib Pi 
Pom ATO RHINE Setta. 

A constant winter visitor. Breeds in Lapland and Finmark. 

401. SiBBcoBAaniB PABABirrcTTB Vol. T. PI. LXXX. 

Aectic Seda. 

Keaident around our coasts. Breeds in Orkney and Shetland. 



402. SrEBOORAKITJB lOHSICiDBTrS 
Lo.NG-TAILEB SeTTA, 

A rare winter visitant trom the north-eastern 



Vol. V.Pl. LXXXI. 



family PROCELLARID^. 

This truly oceanic family is but feebly represented in the British 
seas, six or seven heing all that we enumerate ; whereas with those 
frequenting the watera of the other parte of the globe they amount 
to double that number. 



Genua P»oceij,abia. 



403. Pbocelliria 

FuLUiR, 



Vol. V. Pl. LXXXII. 



Get 



s PuiriNrs. 



Three or four birds of this form frequent the seas of the British 
lelandB, two of which have hcpn figured, and there can be no dou' ' 
as to the propriety of so doing ; but I may state that there e 
others occasionally found here which are not well understood, or 
have not been properly worked out. Having myself collected these 
birds round the entire globe, I could not fail to remark the vast 
number of species I met with. In my ' Birds of Australia' forty 
species are either figured or enumerated, and I feel assured that the 
list may he greatly added to on a closer research than I could 
give of the seas I had at that time (1838-41) the opportunity of 
traversing. 



135 

404 PuppiNus MAJOE ... . * . • Vol. V. PL LXXXni. 

Gbeat Shearwater. 
A bird which almost yearly visits the seas of the Land's End. 

405. PuTFiinrs anolorum Vol. V. PI. LXXXIV, 

Manx Shearwater. 

Breeds commonly on one or more of the Scilly Islands ; and, as it 
is also found here in winter, it may be considered a resident species. 

Genus jEstrelata. 

406. JESTRELATA H.BSITATA. 

Capped Petrel. 
Has once been taken in England. 

Genus Thalassidroma. 

A genus in which Vigors and others have placed the smaller 
members of the Procellaridce — Storm-Petrels. In the British seas 
we have two breeding species, and a third looks in upon us now and 
then when it has crossed the Atlantic to our side of the globe. 

407. Thalassidroma Leachh Vol. V. PI. LXXXV. 

Fork-tailed Storm-Petrel. 

Breeds in the Outer Hebrides, and frequently foimd dead on 
inland properties, apparently from exhaustion, from the exertion of 
crossing overland from sea to sea. 

408. Thalassidroma pelagica .... Vol. V. PI. LXXXVI. 

Storm-Petrel. 

This little sprite of the waters is known to breed on many parts 
of our western coasts from the Scilly Isles to the Orkneys, and on 
some of the rocky islets of the west coast of Scotlcmd. 

09. Thalassidroma Bulweri. 

Bulwer's Petrel. 

This bird, which inhabits Madeira, sometimes visits our seas, 
and by Yarrell and others has been included in our avifauna. 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. 



\J'^y\f\^^\^k^<f\./\y^J\^\^\.*■^^\.f\*\^Kr\^\.f^.r\^\^^y\m 



HER MOST GRACIOUS MAJESTY THE QUEEN. 

HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS THE PRINCE CONSORT. 

HIS MAJESTY LEOPOLD I., KING OF THE BELGIANS. 

HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS THE DUKE D'AUMALE. 

Ackroyd^ E., Esq., Halifax^ Yorkshire. 

Advocates^ the Library of the Faculty of, Edinburgh, 

Ailsa, The Most Hon. The Marquis of^ Cukean Castle^ Maybole, Ayr- 
shire, N,B. 

Allford, Mrs., Albert Boad, Dyke Boady Brighton, 

Allison, R. A., Esq., Sealeby HaU, Carlisle, 

Allport, Morton, Esq., Hobart Town, Tasmania, 

Amhurst, W. Amhurst T., Esq., Didlington Park, Brandon, Nor- 
folk. 

Anstice, J., Esq., Madeley Wood, Wellington, Salop, 2 copies. 

Argyll, His Grace the Duke of, Inverary Castle, Argyllshire, Sfc, 

Arkwright, Miss C. E., Mark HaU, Harlow, Essex, 

Armstrong, Sir W. G., Elswick, Neweastle-on^Tyne, 

Army and Navy Club, The, PaU Mall. 

Athenseum, The, PaU MaU, 

Australian Museum, The, Sydney, New South Wales, 

Aylesford, The Rt. Hon. The Earl of, Paekington HaU, Coventry. 

Backhouse, A., Esq., Darlington, Durham. 

Bagot, The Rt. Hon. Lord, Blithfield, Bugeley, Staffordshire, 

Bailey, Mrs. Henry, Bosedale, Tenbury, Worcestershire, 

Baker, W. R., Esq., Bayfordbury, Hertfordshire, 

Balston, The Rev. Dr., ITie Vicarage, Bakewell, Derbyshire. 



I 



Bamard, H. B., Esq., Wortitad, NorviicH. 

Barclay, Hanbury, Esq., Middht(m Ball, Tamu)or&, 

Barclay, J, G., Esq., Lombard Strett, and Leylon, Estex. 

Barclay, B., Esq., Lombard Street. 

Baring, E. C, Esq., 37 Charles Street, Berkeley Square. 

Barlow, F. P., Esq., 26 RulUiid OaU, Hydi Park. 

Burth(j8, Mons. P., Paris. 

Bass, 31. T., Esq., 101 Eaton Square, and Bangemore House, Burton- 

on-Treat, Stajbrdshire. 
BaBset, J. F., Esq., TehiJy Pari:, Jkdruth, Cornwall. 
Bateman, J., Esq., 9 Hyde-Park QaU Smith. 
BatfiSon, J., Esq., Shieldaig of Gairloeh, Aehnasheen, Boss-sliire, 

y.B. 
Bayne, W. T., Esq., York Terrace, Regent's Parle. 
Bailey, T. Sebastian, Esq., Hartherop Castle, Fairford, Ghueesler- 

Bcanmont, A., Esq., Qreave, MeltJiatn, Hwddersfidd, Yorkshire, 

Beckwith, W. E., Esq,, £0(0*1 Conslantine, Wellington, SaZop, 

Bedford, His Grace The Duke of, Wobuni Abbey, Bedfordshire. 

Bennett, Dr., Sydney, New Sout/i Wales. 

Berlin, the Royal Library of. 

Betts, Edw. Ladd, Esq. 

Bidder, O. P., Esq., Bavoisbury Park, Mitckam, Surrey, 

Bird, W. F. W., Esq., Wilminglon House, Dartford, Kent. 

Birkbeck, E., Esq., 10 IT^er Brook Street, Qrosvenor Square. 

Birkbeek, B., Esq., 20 Berkeley Square. 

Binningham Public Library, The. 

Blake, H. W., Esq., 8 Devonshire Place, Portland Place. 

Bodleian labrary, The, Oxford, 

Bond, F., Esq., 203 Adelaide Road, South Hampstead. 

Booth, E. T., Esq., 18 Vernon Terrace, Brighton, 

Boynton, Sir Henry, Bart., Burton Agnes, Yorkshire. 

Bradford, The Et, Hon. The Eaj-1 of, Belgrave Square. 

Brmkenridge. The Rev. G. W., Glevedon, Somersitsldre. 

Br^thwaite, Dr., Clapham Rise. 

BrasHey, T., Esq., 156 Lowndes Sqiiare. 

Braybrooko, The Et. Hon. Lord, Audley End, Saffrott 

Essex. 
Eree, Dr., East Hill, Colchester, Essex. 
Bree, The Rev. W., Allesley Rectory, near Coventry. 
Brenchley. Julius L,, Esq., itilf/ale, near Maidstone, Kent, 



iare. 



Brewin, B., Esq., Ide', Exeter. 

British Museum, The. 

Brooke, The Rev. J., ffaughton Hall, Shiffnal, 

Brooke, T., Esq., Sheffield. 

Brooke, Sir Victor A., Bart., CoHebrooke Parh, BrooJcehoro\ Fenna- 
nagh, Ireland. 

Brown, J., Esq., Copgrove HaU, Borobridge, TorJcshire. 

Brown, "W. R., Esq., Belmont House, Liverpool. 

Brownlow, The Rt. Hon. The Earl, Belton House, Grantham, Lin- 
colnshire. 

Brussels, The Royal Library of. 

Bucdeuch and Queensbury, His Grace The Buke of, Dalkeith Palace, 
near Edinburgh. 

Buchanan, Mrs., Auchtentorlie, Bowling, Dumbartonshire, N.B. 

Buckley, H., Esq., Edghaston, Birmingham. 

Buckley, T., Esq., Westwood House, Beverley. 

Buckley, Miss, BanJc House, Hanley, Staffordshire, 

Buffalo Natural History Society, The, N. America. 

Burnett, F, C, Esq., VauxhaU. 

Busk, J., Esq., Codicote Lodge, Welwyn, Hertfordshire. 

Butler, C, Esq., 3 Connaught Plac^e. 

Buxton, Sir T. E., Bart, Warlies, Waltham Ahhey, Essex. 

Buxton, S..Gumey, Esq., Norwich. 

Cabbell, B. B., Esq., Cromer Hall, Norfolk. 

Calthorpe, The Rt. Hon. Lord, Grosvenor Square. 

Cambridge University, The. 

Campbell, Colonel, Bh/thswood, N.B. 

Campbell, Sir George, Bart., Garscuhe, Glasgow, N.B. 

Canada, The Library of the Parliament of, 

Cator, A., Esq., Woodhastwick Hall, Norwich, and Trewshury, Ciren" 
cester, Gloucestershire. 

Chesham, The Rt. Hon. Lord, Chesham, Latimers, Buckingham- 
shire. 

Childers, J. W., Esq., Cantley, Doncaster, Yorkshire. 

Cholmeley, The Rev. J., Magdalen Hall, Oxford. 

Clamorgan, The Chevalier, Normandy. 

Clark, E., Esq., 3 Westminster Chambers, Victoria Street. 

Clarke, J., Esq., Fairy Croft, Saffron Waldon, Essex. 

Climenson, The Rev. John, Shiplake Vicarage, Henley 'On-Thnm^, 
Oxon, 



Codrington, Lady Georgiana, DoiMingtnn Park, Chijipenliam, Wilt- 

Collin, J. T., Esq., Wmden, Saffron Walden, Estex. 

Collins, Edward, Esq., Newton Ferrers, Callington., Cornwall, 

Cooper, Liout.-Col, Edward F., 5 Bryanaton Square. 

Cooper, Sir Daniel, Bart., 20 Priitees Gardens. 

Cotes, Lady Louisa, Woodecte, Newport, iSa/op. 

Cotton, H. P., Esq., Quex Park, Isle of Thanet. 

Coulthuret, W. M., Esq., Streatham, Surrei/. 

Cowper, The Et. Hon. The Dowager Countess, 4 St, James's Square. 

Czamikow, C, Esq., Glen Court, Miicham, Surreu. 

Craufurd, The Eev. C, H., Old Swinfoi-d, Stourbridge, WoreesUrsJiire. 

Craven, The Et. Hon. The Earl of, Charles Street, Berkeley Square. 

Crewe, Sir John H., Bart., Calire Ahhey, near Derby. 

Crowe, Lady, CalJce Abbey, near Derby. 

Crewe, The Eev. H. H., The Sector^, Drayton Beaxieliamji, Trjtig. 

Hertfordshire. 
firichton, A. W., Esq., Broadward Hall, Aston- on- Clun, Salop. 
Crokat, C. F., Esq., Bayswater. 

Croramelin, J. P. A. Van Wiobevoort, Esq., Haarlem, 
Crompton-Eoherts, C. H., Esq., 16 Beli/rave Square, 
CroBsfield, H,, Esq., Oahlands, Atghurth Road, Liverpool. 
Crowley, A., Esq., Croydon, Surrey. 
Crowley, P., Esq., Waddon Howie, Croydon, Surrey. 
Cubitt, J., E8q.,ffc«o( George Street, Westminater. 

Darhishire, E. D., Esq., Victoria Park, Manchester. 

Dariilcy, The Ut Hon The Earl of, HiU Street, Berkeley Square 

Cobham Hull Kent 4c 
Darby, Mrs. A St inley II til Bndgenorih, Salop. 
Dartmouth, The Et Hon The Earl of, Patskvll Hall, Woh-er 

hiimpton 
Daubuz, The Eev. J., Kilhon, Truro, Cornwall, 
Davey, R., Esq., Baekym House, Helsione, Cornwall, 
Deacon, 3., Esq., Birchin Lane, Lombard Street. 
Deedes, W., Esq., Sandling Park, near Hyihe, Kent, 
Denison, A., Esq., R Albemarle Street. 
Denison, Mrs., 33 Wilton Place, Belyravia. 
Dennistoun, A. H., Esq., Itosslea, Helenshvryh, N.B. 
De Vitre. Mrs,, 10 Upper Bnimwick Plact, Brighton. 
Doritt, T. L., Esq., Lower Clapton, 



Deyonshire, His Grace The Bake of, ChaUworth, Derbyshire. 

Dickens, C. S., Esq., Coolhurst, Horsham, Sttssea^, 

Dickinson, J., Esq., Abbots HiU, Eemel Hempstead, Hertfordshire. 

Dickinson, J. D., Famcomh Place, Godahning, Surrey. 

Dod, The Rev. C. Wolley, Eton College. 

Dorchester, the Rt. Hon, Lord, Oreywell Hitt, Odiham, Hampshire. 

Dowsett, A., Esq., 16 North Street, Brighton. 

Dmmmond, R., Esq., Charing Cross. 

Drnmmond-Hay, Col., Seggieden, Perth, N.B. 

Ducie, The Rt. Hon. The Earl of, Tortvmrth Court, Gloucestershire. 

Dusacq, The Baron, Virginia, 

Dutton, The Hon. Edward Lennox, 2 St. James's Place. 

Eckersley, Jas., Jan., Esq., Burnt House, Chorley, Lancashire. 

Edinburgh, The Royal Society of. 

Edinburgh, The University of. 

Edwardes, Capt, J, T. Hope, Netky Hall, Salop. 

Edwardes, Sir Henry, Bart., Orleton Hall, Salop. 

Elger, J,, Esq., Lewes Crescent, Brighton. 

Elliot, D. G., Esq., New York. 

Elliot, G., Esq., Great George Street, Westminster, and Betley Hall, 

Betley, Staffordshire. 
EUis, J. H., Esq., Knighton, near Leicester. 
Elwes, J. H., Esq., Colebome Park, Cheltenham. 
Enniskillen, The Rt. Hon. The Earl of, Florence Court, EnnishiUen, 

Ireland. 
Erie, The Rt. Hon. Sir William, Bramshott Grange, LiphooTc, Hamp- 

shire. 
Errington, G. H., Esq., Lexden ParJc, Colchester, Essex. 
Evans, J., Esq., Nash Mill House, Hemd Hempstead, Hertfordshire. 
Eyton, T. C, Esq., EytonHyn-the-Wealdmoors, Wellington, Salop. 

Falmouth, The Rt. Hon. The Viscount, 2 St. Jameses Square, aud 

Tregoihnan, Cornwall. 
Fanshawe, J. G., Esq., Halhin Street, Belgrave Square. 
Farlow, C, Esq., St. EdmuncTs Terrace, Primrose HiU. 
Finney, W., Esq., Formosa Place, CooJcham, BerTcshire, 
Fitz-Gerald, Mrs., 2 Portland Place. 

Fitzgerald, R., Esq., AdraviUe, Bahnain, New South Wales. 
Fitzwilliam, The Rt. Hon. Earl, 4 Ghrosvenor Square, 
Fleming, J., Esq., Queen^s Gate, Kensington, 



Flower, E. F., Esq., The Hill, Stmtford-on-Avon, Warit-id-sliiTe. 

Foley, The Et. Hon. Lord, 26 O-rosveaof Square. 

Foljainbc, F. J. 8., Esq., Osbertan, Worirsop, Notlinghamtldre. 

Ford, J". W,, Esq., Enfield Old Park, Middlesex. 

Foster, S. L., Esq., Old Park ShU, Wahall, Stafordahire. 

Foster, E., Esq., The CaatU, Lostviithiel, Cornwall. 

Foster, W. 0., Esq., Aple^j Park, Bridgenorth, Salop. 

Foimtaine, E., Esq., Eaaton, Norwich. 

Fowler, F. S., Esq., Mannamead, Plymouth. 

Fowler, J., Esq., TlwmuKod Lodge, Campden ffiU, Kensington. 

Fowler, W., Esq., Whiuingttm HaU, OhesterfiSd, Derbyshire. 

Frankliu, Lady, 2 Upper Gore, Kentinjioti. 

Fraser, W., Esq., Shipness Castie, Argyllshire. 

Fuller, F., Esq. 

Gardner, C. D., Esq., The Cedars, Putnetj. 

Gardner, 8., Esq., Archer House, Ahheydale, SheffieU, Yorkshire. 

Oassiot, J. P., Esq., Jun., 6 Sussex Place, Begent's Park, and The 

Culvers, Carshalton, Surrey. 
Gibbs, H. H., Esq., :S(. DiiMstan% Regenei Park. 
Gibson, G. S., Esq., Saffron Walden, Esaesr. 
Glasgow University, The. 

Glyn, Mrs. St. Leger, Bramble HiS, Lyndkwrst, Hampstitre. 
Glyn, Sir Richard Carr, Bart., Leweston, SJierbome, Dorset. 
Godfrey, T. S., Esq., Balderlon HaU, Newark, Nottinghamshire. 
Godman, F. Du Cane, Esq., Park Batch, Godalndng, Surrey. 
Gosford, ITie Right Hon. The Earl of, Oosford Castle, Armagh, 

Ireland. 
Gould, The llev. A., Biddicot, Banhury, O^von. 
Qower, The Hon. E. F. Leveson, 14 South Audley Street. 
Gower, W. Granville Leveson, Esq., Titsey Park, Oodstone, Surrey. 
Graham, The Eev. M. K., Arthuret, Carlisle. 
Gray, A., Esq., Stamford Hill, Middlesex. 
Greene, The Eev. E,, Highlands, St. James Road, Tunbridge WelU, 

Grenfell, Mrs., Taplow Court, Taplow, Bwks. 

Griggs, M., Esq., Hy mouth, 

Grosvenor, The Lord Eichard, 76 Brook Street, Grorvtnor Square. 

Gulson, J., Esq,, Priory Row, Coventry, 

Hamilton, Dr., 9 Portugal Street, Q^-osvenor Squart. 



Hamilton and Brandon, His Grace The Duke of, The Palace, Ha- 

mtlUm, N.B, 
Hammond, W. 0., Esq., St. AJbarCs Court, Wingham, Kent. 
Hamond, A., Esq., Westacre^ Swaffham, Norfolk, 
Hanbury, Robert, Esq., Poles^ WarCy Hertfordshire. 
Hankey, J. A., Esq., Balcomhe Place, Cuchfield, Sussea:, 
Harcourt, E. W. Vernon, Esq., Nuneham Park, Abingdon, Berkshire, 
Hardy, C. S., Esq., Chilham Castle, Canterbury, 
Hardy, H. C, Esq., Anstey Manor, Hampshire, 
Harrison, W., Esq., Samlesbury HaU, Preston, Lancashire, 
Hartley, L. L., Esq., 13 Ghreat Cumberland Place, Hyde Park. 
Hartmann, James, Hyndbum, AccringUm, Lancashire, 
Hartopp, Sir John, Bart., Four Oaks Hall, Sutton Coldfietd, 
Hartree, Mrs., Lewisham Moad, Oreemuic^, Kent, 
Harvey, N., Esq., Hayle, Cornwall, 
Hawkshaw, Sir John, Hollycombe, Sussex, 
Hawkshaw, J. C, 25 Cornwall Gardens, South Kensington, 
Hawley, Sir Joseph, Bart., 34 Eaton Place, S,W, 
Hemans, G. W., Esq., 11 Roland Gardens, South Kensington, 
Hesketh, Sir Thomas, Bart., Eufford HaU, Ormskirk, Lancashire, 
Hewitson, W. C, Esq., Oatlands, Walton-on-Thames, 
Hill, The Bight Hon. Viscount, Hawkestone, near Shrewsbury, Salop, 
Hoare, S. G., Esq., Hampstead, Middlesex, 
Holford, E. S., Esq., Dorchester House, Park Lane, 
Holland, Wilmot, Esq., Bread Street, Cheapside, 
Holmes, A, W., Esq., Makeney Lodge, Derby, 
Holmesdale, The Et. Hon. Viscount, Linton Park, Staplehurst, Kent, 
i9.ope. The Lady Mildred Beresford, 1 Connaught Place, 
Horsfall, W. C, Esq., Horsforth Low Hall, Leeds, Yorkshire, 
Hudson, E., Esq., Clapham Common, 
Hull Subscription Library, The. 
Hussey, H., Esq., Hyde Park Gardens, 
Huthwaite, The Eev. T. W., BackweU Vicarage, Bristol, 

Ingram, Mrs., Mouni Felix, Walton-on-Thames, 
Irving, Professor, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 
Isham, Sir Charles E., Bart., Lamport HaU, Northampton, 

JefFery, G. A., Esq., Trinity House, Easihoume, Sussex, 
Jerv'oise, H. E., Esq., 11 Eaton Terrace, 
Johnstone, Sir Harcourt, Bart., 34 Belgrave Square, 



Jolliffe, The Hon. H. H., MentTmm, $urmj. 
.lones, Mrs., The Viearage, Baseharch, Salop. 
Jones, H., Eeq., BirmUigham. 

Kelk, J., Esq., The Fnory, Stanmore, Middlesex. 

Kelsall, H., Esq. 

Kemp, i. T., Esq., 41 Weymouth Street, Portlaiid Place. 

Kennard, H. M., Esq., Cmmlin Hail, Newport, Monmouthshirt. 

Knight, E., Esq., Chaiuton HovMe, Hampshire. 

Kershaw, S., Esq., Heywood, Manchester. 

King's College, Cambridge, ITie Provost and Fellova of. 

Kyngdon, Boughton, Esq., Tre^eare, Croydon, Surrey. 

Larking, J. W., Esq., The Firs, Lee, Kent. 

Laver, H., Esq., Trinity Street, Colchester, Essea:. 

Lawley, The Hon. and Kev. S. "W., Escrict, near Tori: 

Lawreoce, E. H., Eaq., Abbey Farm Lorlge, New Ftnchky BoaH. 

Hampatead, Middlesex. 
Lawrence, G. N., Esq., Pearl Street, New Vorlc. 
Leaf, C. J., Esq., Old Chaiv/e, City. 
Leigh, The Rt. Hon. Lord, Sloneleigh Abbey, Kenilworih, Warwiek- 

Mre, 
Lilford, The Bt. Hon. Lord, Litford Hall, OuiuUe, Northamptoivhire. 
Liverpool Library, The. 
Liverpool Free Lihrury, The, 

Uewelyn, J. D., Esq., 39 Cornwall Gardens, Ketmvyton. 
Londonderry, The Most Hon, The Marquis of. Mount Stewart, New- 

tomnards, Co. Down, Ireland. 
Longman, C., Esq., Shendisk, Metnel Hempstead, Hertfordshire. 
Longman, T,, Esq., Famborouyh Hall, Faiiiborough. 
Longm.an, "W,, Esq., Ashlyn's Hall, Berihampstead, Hertfordshire. 
Luoaa, T., Esq., 12a Kensington Pulaee Gardens. 

llcConnel, Miss J. C, Cressbraok, Biikeuielt, Derbyshire. 

Major, 0. M., Esq., Crotnuiell House, Dvppas Hill Terrace, Croydon. 

Surrey. 
Malta, The PuhLc library of. 
Manchester, Hia Grace The Duke of, Oreat Stanhope Street, and 

Kimbollon CasOe, St. Neo€s, Huntingdonsliire. 
Manael, (i. P., Esq., Laiiffton Lodge, Blandford, Dorset. 
Mansfield, H., Esq., Oxford and Cambridge CliA, Fall Mall. 



9 

Marjoiibanksy Miss Emma, 34 Wimpole Strset, Cavendish Square. 
Maxlay, C. B., Esq., St, Kathenne^s Lodge, Regents Bark. 
Marshall, J., Esq., Belmont^ Taunton, Somersetshire, 
Marshall, W., Esq., Clay Hill, Enfield, Middlesex. 
Marshall, W., Esq., Patterdale Hall, J^enrith, Cumberland. 
Martens, G., Jun., Esq., Hamburg. 

Matheson, of Ardross, Mrs., 38 South Street^ Gro»venor-Square. 
Mercer, D., Esq., West Drayton, Middlesex. 
Michell, J., Esq., Forcett Park, Darlington, Durham. 
Micklethwait, The Rev. J. N., Taverham Hall, Norwich. 
Mildmay, H. B., Esq., 46 Berkeley Square. 

Mildmay, Sir Henry St. John, Bart., Dogmersfidd Park, Hamp- 
shire. 
Milles, The Hon. George, Lee's Court, Favershmi, Kent, 
Milner, Sir William M. E., Nunappleton, Tadeaster, Yorkshire. 
Milton, The Et. Hon. Selina, Yiscountess, Carlton House Terrace. 
Mitchell, A., Esq., 6 Great Stanhope Street, May Fair. 
Molyneiix, Sir Capel, Bart., Castle Dillon, Armagh, Ireland. 
Monfort, C, Esq., 33 Marine Parade, Worthing, Sussex. 
Monk, T. J., Esq., Mountfield House, Lewes, Sussex, 
Moore, J., Esq., Grasmere Lodge, Lower Tulse Hill, 
Morella, The Countess de, Wentworth, Staines, 
Morley, Miss L., Windmill, Blackheath, Kent, 
Morrison, of Bognie, A., Esq., Mountblairy House, Inverness. 
Morse, C, Esq., TJie Orchard, Aylsham, Norfolk, 
Murdoch, J. B., Esq., 33 Lynedoch Street, Glasgow, N.B, 
Musgrave, Sir Bichard C, Bart., Eden Hall, Penrith, Cumberland, 

Naylor, J., Esq., Leighton Hall, Welchpool. 

Necker, F., Monsr., Geneva, Switzerland, 

Newcastle, His Grace The Duke of, Clumber, Nottinghamshire, 

Newdigate, lieut.-CoL, Grenadier Guards, Byrkley Lodge, Needtvood 

Forest, Burton-upon-Trent, Staffordshire, 
Newdigate, Major. 

Newman^ E., Esq., Bamsley, Yorkshire. 
Nichol, J. C, Esq., Merthyr Mawr, Bridgend. 
Nicholson, F., Esq., Bowden, Cheshire. 
Noble, J., Esq., Park Place, Henley-on-Tliames. 2 copies. 
Nolan, Dr., GeraWs Town, Ireland, 
Norris, W. G., Esq., Colebrookdale, Salop. 
North, The Rt. Hon. "^ Baroness, J6 4^linjton Street, Piccadilly, 



Northampton, Tbe Most Hon. The Marquis of, 145 Fli-miUlly. uu. 

Casili Ashby, Northamptotiahire. 
Northumberland, His Grace the Duke of, Ahiwkk- CiislU, Nvriham 

berland. 



Ouvry, ¥., Esq., 1^ Qtieen Anne Slitet, Givtitdish Sijuan. 
Owen, Professor, Sheen Lodge, Richmond Park. 
Usford and Cambridge Club, Pall Mnll. 

Packe, J., Esq., Melton Lodge, Woodhridye, Suffollc. 

Palatine Library, The, Florence. 

Parker, Mra., Whiteway House, CAudleigh, Devonshire. 

Peabodj Institute, The, Baltimore, M. America. 

Peek, H. W., Esq., Wimbledon Hoim, Wimbledon, Surrey. 

Pender, 1., Esq., 18 Arlington Street, HeeadiUy. 

Pearioe, T., Esq., Kilvrough House, Swansm, South Walet. 

Peurhyu, The Bt. Hon, Lord, Penrhyn GaslU, Sam/or. 

Perkiiia, J,, Esq., Downing Coll-ege, Cambridge. 

Peters, W., Esq., Ashfold, CrawJei/, Siisscv. 

Peto, Sir S. Morton, Bart. 

Pliiladelphia Academy of Sciences, The, North America. 

PinwOl, Captain, TreMne, Ti'eiilian, Probus, Comtoall. 

Plymouth PubUc library. The. 

Pocock, Mrs., Puckrup Hall, Tewkesbury, Gloiteesterskire. 

Portland, His Grace The Duke of, Caveiidiih Square. 

Porliuan, The Hon. Mrs., Darweston, Blandford, Dorset. 

Powerscourt, The Rt. Hon. Viscount, Powerseourt Home, V. 

Ireland. 
Powys, P. Lybbe, Esq. 
Prentice, Walter, Esq., Sahihant, Kent. 
Pryor, R., Esq., High Elms, Watford, Hertfordshire. 

RadeUffe Library, The, 0.rfo>-d. 

Ramsay, E, P., Esq., Dobroyde, New South Wales. 

Ravensworth, The Kt. Hon. Lord, Savennvorlh Castle, Gateshead, 

Durham. 
lleed, W., Esq., York. 

Reeves, J. R., Esq., Woodhays, Wimbledon, Surrey. 
Ridgway, J., Esq., BrandfoU, ffovdhiirst, Kent. 
Eigby, S., Esq., Warrington. 
Rimmer, R., Esq., The Oables, East Bergholt, Colchester, 1 



11 

Eipon, The Most Hon. The Maxquis of, Carlton Home Gardens. 
Eocke, J., Esq., Olungunford HotLSBy Aston-on-Clun, Salop. 
Bodd, E. H., Esq., Penzance, Cornwall. 
KoUe, The Rt. Hon. Lady, Upper Orosvenor Street, and Bieton, Bud- 

leigh SaUerton, Devon, 
Rolle, The Hon. Mark, Stevenston, Devonshire. 
Hooper, G., Esq. 

Kotherham, Mrs., Conuden, Coventry, 
Eothschild, Sir Anthony de, Bart., Orosvenor Place Houses. 
Eothschild, Miss Alice de, Aston Clinton, Tring^ Hertfordshire. 
Eothschild, The Baroness, 107 Piccadilly. 

Bowley, G. Dawson, Esq., Chichester House, East Cliff, Brighton. 
Rowley, J. T., Esq., Tendring HaU, StoJce^-Nayland, Colchester, 

Esseso. 
Royal Artillery Institution, The, Woolwich, Kent. 
Royal Institution of Great Britain, The, Albemarle Street. 
Rncker, S., Esq., West HUl, Wandsworth, Surrey. 
Buskin, J., Esq., Corpus Christi College, Oxford. 
Russell, J. Watts, Esq., Ham Hall, Ashbome, Derbyshire. 

St. Andrews, The University of. 

St. Petersburg, The Imperii Academy of Sciences of. 

St. Aubyn, Sir John, Bart., Trevethoe and Pendrea, Cornwall. 

Sanford, W. A., Esq., Nynehead Court, Wellington, Somersetshire. 

Saunders, Howard, Esq., 7 Radnor Place, Gloucester Square. 

Schreiber, Mrs., Woodchureh, Ashford, Kent. 

Scott, A. J., Esq., Botherjleld ParJc, Alton, Hampshire. 

Scott, E. H., Esq., 27 Grosvenor Square. 

Scott, T., Esq., Ann Street, Birmingham. 

Sefton, The Bt. Hon. The Earl of, Belgrave Square. 

Shaw, Mr. Henry, Shrewsbury. 

Shuttleworth, B. J., Esq., Berne, Switzerland. 

Sibthorp, Mrs. "Waldo, Washingboro\ Lincoln. 

Simmons, G., Esq., East Peckham, Tonhridge, Kent. 

Sion College, London WaU. 

Skaife, J., Esq., Union Street, BlacJcbum, Lancashire. 

Skinner, C. B., Esq., 57 Eccleston Square. 

Slater, Edwin, Esq., Manchester. 

Smith-Dorrien, Thos. Algernon, Esq., Tresco Abbey, Isles of Sdlly. 

Smith, A. H., Esq., Flexford House, Guildford, Surrey. 

Smith, Bev. Oswald, CnidweU Bectory, Tetbvry, Gloucestershire. 



Smith, W, C, Esq., Skortgrove, Newport, Etsex. 

Smyth, Percy, Esq., Hmdhorough, Ireltind. 

Smyth, Sir J. H. Oreviile, Bart., Aakton Court, near Bristol, Somer- 
setshire. 

Solly, W. H., Esq,, Serge Sill, Bemel Hempstead, ffert/ordshire. 

Sondes, The Rt. Hon. Lord, 32 Orosvenor Square. 

Sotheran, Messre. H. & Co., 136 Strand. 2 copies. 

Spieer, Major, Spi/e Pari, Chippenham. 

Spottiawoode, "W,, Esq., 50 Oroavenor Place. 

Stamford and Warrington, The lit. Hon. The Earl of, Briville Hall, 
Staffordshire. 

Stane, Bramston, Esq., Buekfield, Basingstoke, Hampshire. 

Stanhope, J. Banks, Esq., Revealey Abbey, Bo8t<yn, LincolmSiire. 

Staniforth, Tha Eev. Thomas, Starr's Hall, Windermere, Weatmore- 

Stapleton-Cotton, The Hon. B. 

Stevenson, H,, Esq., Nbrmeh, 

Stewart, Captain. 

Stewart, H. G. Mnmiy, Esq., OaUij Gatehouse, If.B. 

Stewart, M. J., Esq., Arkwell, Stranraer, N.B, 

Straoey, Sir Henry, Bart., Eadcheath EaU, N'onvteh. 

Stuart, R. L., Esq., JTeto Tori, N. America. 

Stuart, The Itev. H. C, Weagly Vicarage, Wakejield, Yorkshire. 

Sturt, H. G., Esq., CncArf, Wimbome, Dorset. 

Sm^eona of England, The Royal College of, Lincoln's Inn Fields. 

Sutherland, His Grace The Dobe of, Stafford House, St. James's. 

Sutton, E. G. G., Esq., Grange Villa, Triitg, Hertfordshire. 

Tankerrille, The Rt. Hon. The Earl of, OhilUngfiam Castle, Nor- 

tJiumherland. 
Tarratt, J., Esq., Duddnn Hall, Broughton-in-FariKSs, Lancaslilre. 
Taylor, E., Esq., Castle Cottage, HockerHl, Essex. 
Taylor, J. E., Esq., Manchester. 
Taylor, W., Esq., Thome Hoitse, Easthounie, Sussex. 
Temple, The Rev, G., Canterbury, Kent. . 

Teylerian Lihrary, The, Haarlem. , 

ThomasBon, J. P., Esq., Moorjield, Bolton-le-Moors, Lancashire. 
Thompson, J., Esq., Bouiden, Chesliire. 
Thompson, W., Esq., Gloucester Row, Weymouth, Dorsetsliire. 
Tindal, Mrs. Acton, Manor House, Aylesbury, Buekinghmnshire. 
Tipping, Mrs., Brasled Park, Seven Oaks, Kent. 



13 

Tomline, G.^ £sq.» 1 Carlton House Terrace, 
Tottenham, Lt.-Col., Talbot Hall, New Boss, Ireland. 
Tremayne, J., Esq., ffeligan, St, AtisteU, ComwaU. 
Trevor, Lord A. Hill, Brynkinholt Park, Salop. 
Trinity College, Dublin. 
Tufton, Sir Eichard, Paris. 

Tumor, C, Esq., StoTce Bochford, Grantham, Lincolnshire, 
Tweedie, A. F., Esq., BicJcUy, Bromley, Kent, 
Tweedie, J., Esq., Rachan House, PeeblesMre, N,B, 

Victoria, The Public Library, Museum, and National Gallery of, 

Melbourne, Australia, 
Victoria, The National Museum of, Melbourne, Australia. 

Walden, The Rt. Hon, Viscount, WcHden Cottage, Chishhurst, Kent. 

Walker, Pountaine, of Foyers, Esq., Muirtown House, Inverness. 

Walker, Mrs., Amot Grove, Soutligate, Middlesex. 

Waller, E., Esq., Farmington Lodge, Northleach, Glou^cestershire. 

Walton, C, Esq., Manor House, Acton, Middlesex. 

Ward, Ellis H., Esq. 

Warde, Col., Squerryes Court, Westerham, Kent, 

Waring, S. L., Esq., The OaTcs, Norwood, Surrey. 

West, — , Esq., Eccleston, Liverpool, 

Wellington, His Grace the Duke of, Apsley House, Piccadilly. 

Wenlock, The Rt. Hon. Lord, Esorick Park, near York. 

Westerman, G, F., Esq., Avnsterdam, 

Westminster, The Most Hon. The Marquis of, Grosvenor House, 

Upper Grosvenor Street. 2 copies. 
Whamdiife, The Rt. Hon. Lord, Whamcliffe House, Curzon Street, 

May Fair. 
White, F. M., Esq., 4 Sussex Place, Begenfs Park. 
White, The Rev. H., Stanhope Place, 

Whitehead, J., Esq., Barfield Lodge, Bickley, Bromley, Kent. 
Whitworth, Sir Joseph, Bart., Chorlton Street, Manchester, 
Wigram, L., Esq., 43 Berkeley Square. 

Wigram, M., Esq., Moor Place, Much Hadham, Hertfordshire. 
Williams, C. H., Esq., PilUm H<mse, Barnstaple, North Devon. 
Williams, E. M., Esq., Flushing, Falmouth, Cornwall,' 
Williams, Sir Frederick M., Bart., Goonvrea, Cornwall, 
Williams, G., Esq., Trevince, Truro, Cornwall. 
Williams, J. G., Esq., Chequers Court, Tring, Hertfordshire. 



u 

Williams, The Dowager Lady, Tregullaw, Cornwall, 

Willyams, E. £., Esq., JNansheval, St Columb, Cornwall. 

Wilson, Colonel F. M., Stowlangtoft Hall, Bury St. Edmunds, 

Suffolk, 
Wilson, G. H., Esq., Redgrave HaU, Botesdale, Suffolk, 
Wolf, J., Esq., 69 Bemers Street, Oxford Street, 
Worthington, Jas., Esq., Sale HaU, Manchester, 
Wright, S. Beresford, Esq., Aldercar Hall, Nottingham, 
Wright, Francis, Esq., Osmaston Manor, Derby, 
Wrottesley, Lord, 18 Chapel Street, Park Lane, 
Windsor-Clive, The Lady Mary, Oakly Park, Broomfield, Salop, 
Wingfield, Captain C, Onslow Hall, Shrewsbury, 

Yarborough, The Rt, Hon, The Earl of, 17 Arlington Street, Picca- 
dilly, 

Zoological Society of London, The, Hanover Square, 



PROSPECTUS 



OF THE WORKS 



ON ORNITHOLOGY, ETC., 



BY 



JOHN GOULD, F.R.S. 



I. THE BIRDS OF GREAT BRITAIN. London, 1873. 

The publication of this work commenced in 1862, and is now complete 
in twenty-five Parts at Three Guineas a Part, or £78 15«. the whole. 
Any person desirous of obtaining one of the few remaining copies may 
do so oy communicating with the Author. 

II. A CEOTTRY OF BIRDS FROM THE HIMALAYA MOUN- 

TAINS. 1 Volume, Imperial Folio, containing 80 Plates, with 
descriptive letterpress. Price ^14 14s. London, 1832. 

This work, of which no copies remain, was commenced in January 
1831, and completed in August 1832. It contains figures and descriptions 
of 100 Birds which were at that time either new or very impenectly 
known. 

in. THE BIRDS OF EUROPE. 5 Volumes, Imperial FoHo, 
comprising 449 Plates, with descriptive letterpress. Introduction, 
&c. Price £76 85. London, 1837. 

Of this work also no copies remain ; and it is a source of much satisfac- 
tion to the Author to know that when a copy is offered for sale by public 
auction, on the demise of a Subscriber, it realizes considerably more than 
its origmal cost, — in some instances as much as £100 and even £120. 

IV. THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 7 Volumes, Imperial FoHo, 
containing Figures of 600 species, with descriptive letterpress 
and a large amount of Introductory matter. Price £115. 
London, 1848. 

This work, of which no copies remain, was ori^nally published in 
Thirty-six Parts, each containing Seventeen Plates with descriptive letter^ 
press, at the price of Three Guineas each Part, with the exception of the 
Thirty-sixth, the price of which, in consequence of the large amount of 
introductory matter, was £4 12.9. 



A SUPPLEMENT TO THE BIBDS OF AUSTKALIA. 
Such B. work 03 the ' Birds of Australia ' could not be kept int 
1 indeSnite iierioil ; it waa, therefore, brought ti 



when all the i 



- , , - - , , riTsffi, 

9 tlien known bad been figured ; hut as Austmlia be- 
CBine uiore anu more known, additional species of birds were discovered, 
rendering a Supplement neeeasarj, in order to keep the subject complete. 
Parts 1., II., In., IV., and V., pnce £3 3e. each, haye been published ua 
a-aufficient number of noveltiea came to hand ; and with Part V, Titles 
and every requisite to form the whole into a Volume hare been fur- 
nished. This Supplementary Volume, containing many novelties of the 
highest interest, the Author considers to be one of tlie luoat important he 
has produced, whether regnirded as a continuation to the seven volumea 
which preceded it, or as a separate work. Price 15 Guineas. 

A HANDBOOK TO THE BIRDS OF AUSTRALIA. 

This work has been published in -consequence of the Author having been 
led to belieTe that a rimmi of the subject in an 8vo form, without 
Plates, would be acceptable to the possessors of the folio edition, as well 
as to ljie many persons in Australia who are now tm'iiing their attention 
to the Ornithology of the country in which they are resident, and because 
he was moreoTer assured that such a work was greatly needed to enable 
the explorer during his jonmeyings, or the student in his quiet home, to 
identify the species that might come under his observation, and as a 
means by which the curators of the museums, now eatablished in all 
parts of the world, might arrange and name the Australian birds entrusted 
to their charge ; and he believes that the two volumoa (containing over 
600 pages each) in which it is comprised will fully answer the desired 

The price of the Two Volumes, which contain a considerable amount 
of additional and interesting information, aud many species not in the 
folio edition, is £2 Vis. 



V. THE BIRDS OF ASIA. In e, 
Ton 



! of j>ubUcaiioH. 



le glob 
vast oxteiit of the Old World which we designate Asia. It is there that 
all the productions of nature essential to the well-being of man occur in 
the greatest sbundaiice. The most important of our domestic quadrupeds, 
the most valuable and interesting of our domestic Gallinaceuus birds, 
were first reclaimed in Asia, It is in Asia that animal life exhibits in its 
forms the highest degree of organic developmeDt, together with a vane^ 
in those forms in accordance with the varied physical characters of thm 
eKtensive region, where the grandest mountain-ranges altornatu with 
steppes, sandy deserts, inland seas, and interminable foieste of gigantic 
growth. That the Zoology, then, of such a country should have called 
forth the notice and study of able minds cannot be surprising: and yet 
it is remarkable that no one has attempted a work comprehending n 
general history of its Obnithoi-OOY. This hiatus in Ornithological 
Btwature the Author proposes to fill up by publishing a work on 'The 
Krds of Asia,' precisely similar in every respect to his former works on 
' The Birds of Europe ' and 'The Birds of Australia,' Its size and mannet 
of execution will be the some; and it will be pubUahed in Parts, price 
Three Guineas each. 

or this work twenty-flveParts have been published up to 1873; and for 
the present it will still appear at the rate of not more than one or two 
PaiU B year. 



Vr. A MONUUKAPH OF THE lUMPHASTID^, OK FAMILY 
OF TODCANS. 1 Volume, Imperial Polio, oontajninff Fifty- 
two Plates, with descripti™ ktterpress, &o. Price ^filS 12i, 
London, 1854. 

An edition of tliis work was publisliod in 1834, at the price of £7 ; 
but the extenaiva researches since carried on anioug tlie Graftt Andean 
lUngea of South iVmerica havmg led to the diacoverj of many additional 
and Deautiftd BpeGiefl belonging to tliis extraordinary group of Birda, a 
revision of the work not only became necessary, but an entirely uew 
edition wna deemed imperative ; and accordingly one, with the whole 
of the former Plates rediawa, was published in 1854, at the price of 
£12 129. 

The history of this South-Am ericsn group is very peculiar ; and their 
manners and actions are an remarkable as their aapect, in some respects 
reminding us of the HorobillH of India and Africa, while in others they 
are unlike those of any other group of the feathered race. To a con- 
sideration of these points the Introduction is devoted. 

VU. A MONOGHAPH OF THE TROGONIDiE, OE FAMILY 
OF TROGONS. 1 Volume, Imperial Folio, containing Thirty- 
six Plates, with descriptive letterpress. Price .£8. London, 
1838. 

This work, in unison with the Monograph of the Toucans, comprises 
the historv and figures of all the s^^cies of the group known up to the 
date of pubUcation. The members of the Trogonide are remsrkable for 
a gorgeous style of colouring, for recluse hamts, and for the union of 
iniiect diet wim such alimonte as fruits and berries, in accordance with 
which the beak is modihed ; thev arc divided between the wanner lati- 
tudes of America and India, with the exception of one species, which is 
peculiar to Africa. With the plumes of somo species the Mexican kings 
and Caciq^ues are said to have adorned their head-dresses. 

The same reasons which induced the Author to publish a new edition 
of the Monograph of the Ramphastidx, have aUu rendered another edition 
of this Monogmph desirable ; and accordingly one is now in prepiuation, 
comprising all the new species and information required respecting this 
family of birds during the last twenty-hve years. It will he completed 
in four Fai'te, at £S Ha. each, the drst and second of which la now ready 
for delivery. 

VIII. A MONOGRAPH OF THE ODONTOPHORIN^, OR 
PAKTRIDQEH OF AMERICA. I Volume, Imperial Foho, 
contaiaing Thirty-two Plates, with descriptivo letterpress. 
Price £S tis. London, 1850. 

The interest which attaches to this ^vork is threefold. First, it displays, 
even to the most unpractised eye, the broad distinction which subsists 
between the Partridges of America and those of Europe ; secondly, the 
species are all remarkable for the elegance of their forms and for the chaste 
beauty of their colouring ; and thirdly, at no distant date these Krds will 
be regarded in America, oa our Partridges ia Europe are, as game, and 
perhaps preserved by law, — their ftesh being as dehcata for the table as 
that of our ordinary bird, from which, however, they ditfer conaidei'ably 
in the structure of the beak, and iu general habits and economy. 



IX. A MONOGEAPH OF THE TROOHILLD^ OH HUM- 
MING-BIRDS. 

IldTing from bji early period doToted himaelf to tbe atudy of these 
beautiAi] birds, and acquii'ed a, most Taluable ntid extomiivo collectioD of 
& group peculiar to America ntid ita adjacent ialimdB, the Author deter- 
imned upon publishing' a Monograph of a family unequalled for the 
gorgeous find erer-ehanging brilliancy of their hues, the variety of their 
fomij the Bingulnrity of their habits, and the extent of their territorial 
distnbution. Anxious to render hia representations of these lovely objects 
as faithful aa possible, the Author instituted a series of e^eiimenta upon 
a new mode (tf colouring, trhich has been so far euccossful that the birds 
are as cloaely imitated as art can hope to see accomplished ; he has also 
endeavoured, as far as possible, to associate eacli species with oue of the 
plants of its own region, thereby adding an additional charm to a work 
which he trusts will be equally acceptable to the artist and the lover of 
nature, and which has been so successful that it is pprhaps tho moat 
popular of his productions. 

Complete in five Volumes, price £78 15«. 

X. THE MAMMALS OF AUSTRALIA. 

The Author's visit to Australia having enabled him to procure much 
valuable infoimation respecting the habit; and economy, and many new 
species, of the singular and interesting Mammalia of that country, he baa 
determined upon publishing a work on the subject. "With respectto the 
importance of such a work no doubt can exist ; and as the author is deeply 
impressed with this idea, so will be endeavour lo render it equal to ite 
ftesociflte publication on the Omitholo^ of that remftrfcable regicai. To 
the Plates every attention, even to tbe mmutest detaUs, haa been rendered ; 
and the Author's original notes and observatious have furnished him with 
a stole to draw upon for many points of interest. In execution it is pre- 
cisely similar to the 'Birds,' and is completed in Thirteen Porta, each 
conbiiuing Fifteen Plates, price £3 3it., or m Three Volumes, jirioe £41. 

This work has been so highly approved of, tlmt hy many it is regarded 
as more interesting than the 'Bjtm' of the same country. 



With the exception of the 'Handbook to tbe Birds of Australia,' all 
the above 'n-orka are in Imperial Folio, with the Plates and Bescriptiona 



: style, and form a imiibnn a 



L0N1X)N : PUBLISHED BY THE AUTHOR, 26 CILVRLOTTE 
STREET, BEDFORD SQUARE, W.C.